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Intake and Output Measurements

Intake and Output Measurements

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Intake and Output Measurements

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  1. Intake and Output Measurements

  2. Why measure I & O? • Measuring and recording all liquid intake and output during a 24-hour period helps to complete the assessment data base for fluid and electrolyte balance

  3. Dehydration • An excessive loss of water from the body tissues. • Dehydration disturbs the balance of essential electrolytes: K+, Na+, Cl- • Causes: ________

  4. Overhydration • Marked by an excess of water in the extracellular fluid. • Is a symptom of liver, renal, or cardiovascular disease • 2 types: • Hypervolemia • Edema

  5. Assessment for Alterations of Fluid and Electrolyte Balance • Nursing History • Physical Exam • Fluid Intake and Output Record • Laboratory studies • Electrolytes, CBC, Urine specific gravity, osmolarity

  6. Nursing Diagnoses • Fluid Volume Deficits • Excess fluid volume • Impaired skin integrity • Ineffective tissue perfusion • Impaired gas exchange • Decreased cardiac output

  7. Nursing Interventions • Daily Weights • Intake and Output Measurements • Enteral Replacement of Fluids • Restriction of Fluids • Parenteral Replacement of Fluids and Electrolytes