Questions about personality: • Is personality innate or learned? • Is personality conscious or unconscious? • Is personality influenced by internal or external factors?
Defined as the pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world • Personality theorists and researchers ask why individuals react to the same situation in different ways.
1. Psychodynamic Perspectives: Views personality as being primarily unconscious (or beyond awareness) and as developing in stages. Many psychodynamic perspectives emphasize that early experiences with parents play an important role in shaping personality.
1. Psychodynamic Perspectives: Psychodynamic theorists also believe that behavior is merely a surface characteristic and to truly understand someone’s personality, we have to explore the symbolicmeanings of behavior and the deep inner mechanism of the mind.
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory: • The key to understanding behavior is the unconscious mind. • Believed that trivial behaviors have special significance (eg. Twitch, doodle, joke, smile, Freudian slips) • Also believed that that dreams hold important clues to our behavior. He said that dreams are our unconscious representations of the conflict and tension in our everyday lives that are too painful to handle consciously.
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory: • Compared Personality with an iceberg. • Believed that personality is divide into three parts:
Id Freud believed that personality is divided into three parts: • consists of instincts and reservoir of psychic energy • The Id is unconscious, meaning it has no contact with reality. • The Id works according to the pleasure principle – a concept of Freud’s that the id always seeks pleasure and avoids pain
Ego • a structure of personality that deals with the demands of reality • Abides by the reality principle – a concept that means it tries to bring the individual pleasure within the norms of society • The Ego is partly conscious. • Contains our higher mental functions – reasoning, problem solving, and decision making. • It is considered the executive branch of personality
Superego • Since the id and ego doesn’t consider what is right or wrong, the superego is the moral branch of personality. • Often called the conscience • Like the id, the superego does not consider reality; it only considers whether the id’s impulses can be satisfied in moral terms.
Freud’s Psychoanalytical Theory • Defense Mechanism • The ego uses different strategies to resolve the conflict among the demands of reality. The wishes of the Id versus of the restriction of the superego. • Defense mechanism reduces anxiety unconsciously distorting reality.
Freud’s Psychoanalytical theory • Personality Development: Freud believe that we go trough five stages of personality development and that each stage of development brings pleasure coming from one part of our body. • Oral Stage ( first 18 months of age) • Anal Stage ( 18-36 months) • Phallic Stage ( 3-6 yrs, old) – triggers the Oedipus Complex/Electra Complex • Latency Stage ( 6 yrs. – age of puberty) • Genital Stage ( adolescence to adulthood) Fixation: term used when a person gets locked in an earlier stage because of over- or under-gratified needs
Psychodynamic Dissenters and Revisionists: Freud’s critics claim that: 1. Sexuality is not the all-encompassing force behind personality 2. The first five years are not as powerful, later experiences deserve more attention 3. The ego and the conscious play more important roles in personality than the unconscious, not all activities are related to sexual impulses 4. Socio-cultural factors are more important rather than biological.
Karen Horney (1885-1952) • The prime motive is security and not sex and aggression • Believe that to cope with anxiety, people use three strategies (move toward people, move away from people, move against people)
Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) • Believe that roots to personality comes from the early history of men – collective unconscious, archetypes (anima and animus, mandala, shadow)
Alfred Adler (1870-1937) • Believed in individual psychology - People are motivated by purposes and goals. People have the ability to consciously monitor and control their lives.
Alfred Adler (1870-1937) • He also believed in the motivation to strive for superiority. People used compensation to overcome imagined or real inferiorities which is normal. • Over compensation is the term used by Adler when people deny rather acknowledge weaknesses – inferiority complex (exaggerated feeling of inadequacy) and superiority complex exaggerated of self importance to mask feelings of inferiority).
2. Behavioral and Social Cognitive Perspectives: Emphasis on the importance of environmental experiences and people’s observable behavior to understand personalities
Skinners Behaviorism: • concluded that personality is the individual’s observed, overt, behavior which is determined by external environment and excludes internal traits and thoughts & we do not have to understand our biological and cognitive processes to explain personality. • Behaviorists believes that personality can be learned through rewards, punishments, etc.
Skinners Behaviorism: • They also stress that behavior always has the capacity for change if new experiences are encountered, thus Behaviorists believe that the personality can be changed, shaped and modified since the environment is also inconsistent and malleable.
Albert Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory • His theories state that behavior, environment and person/cognitive factors are important in understanding personality. • Reciprocal Determinism: interaction of behaviorenvironment and cognitive factors. • Also acknowledges that people form their personalities through observational learning.
Albert Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory • Believed also on personal controlor the capacity to exercise some control over their own functioning and over environmental events. • Delay of Gratification • Self Efficacy (belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes) and • Locus of Control (refers to the individuals’ belief about whether the outcomes of their actions depend on what they do [internal control] or on events outside of their personal control [external control]).
3. Humanistic Perspectives: Emphasis that the key to understanding personality is the person’s capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose ones own destiny and positive human qualities.
Carl Rogers (1902-1987) • Believed that most people have considerable difficulty accepting their own true, innately positive feelings. As we grow up, central people in our lives condition us to move away from positive feelings (“Don’t do that!, That’s not right!, Are you stupid?!) • As we struggle to live up to society’s standards, we distort and devalue our true selves.
The SELF: Rogers did not believe that all aspects of the self are conscious, but rather believed that they are all accessible to consciousness. • Self-concept: A person’s over-all perceptions and assessments of their abilities, behavior and personalities. • REAL SELF: Self resulting from our experiences vs • the IDEAL SELF: Self we would like to be. The farther the real and ideal self are, the greater the discrepancy.
Methods in Developing a more Positive Self Concept: Unconditional Positive regard (valuing, accepting, and being positive towards another person regardless of that person’s behavior), Empathic (being a sensitive listener and understanding another’s true feelings), Genuine (being open with our feelings and dropping our pretenses and facades).
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) • 3rd force in psychology (alternative to psychodynamic and behaviorism) • Self-Actualization is the highest form of motivation and an important factor in personality. • Mallow's hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Self Actualization Esteem Love and Belongingness Safety Physiological
Self actualization – need to develop one’s full potential as a human being • Esteem – need of acceptance and approval of oneself and of others • Love and belongingness – need to have external relationship • Safety – need for protection and security • Physiological – need for basic and innate requirements like food, nutrients, and sex.
4. Trait Perspectives: • Trait is an enduring personality characteristic that tends to lead to certain behaviors. • Trait theories state that personality consists of broad, enduring dispositions that tend to lead to characteristic responses. Meaning, people can be described in terms of the basic ways they behave (e.g. Are they outgoing and friendly or dominant and aggressive?).
Hippocrates (400BC) Four basic personalities determined by physical makeup: • 1. Choleric (quick-tempered) • 2. Phlegmatic (placid) • 3. Sanguine (optimistic) • 4. Melancholic (pessimistic)
Gordon Allport (1897-1967) • Believed that each individual has a unique set of personality traits.
Gordon Allport (1897-1967) Identified more than 4,500 personality traits and grouped them into 3 categories: • Cardinal Traits (dominant) • Central Traits (6-12 are sufficient to described a person) • Secondary Traits (limited and least important)
Hans Eysenck (1967) • Three dimensions are needed to explain personality: • Introversion-Extraversion • Stability-Instability • Psychoticism (being in touch with reality
Instability Moody Touchy Anxious Restless Rigid Aggressive Sober Excitable Pessimistic Changeable Reserved Impulsive Unsociable Optimistic Quiet Active Introversion Extraversion Sociable Passive Outgoing Careful Thoughtful Talkative Peaceful Responsive Easygoing Controlled Lively Reliable Carefree Even tempered Leadership Calm Stability
Big 5 Personality Traits • The main dimensions of personality are: OCEAN
Trait-Situation Interaction Some psychologists believe that personality is determined by a combination of traits or person factors and the situation or environmental factors.
Main methods of Personality Assessment • Projective test • Designed to assess the unconscious aspect of personality. They are based on the assumption that the ambiguity of stimuli allows individuals to project their personalities onto them. Eg: Rorschach inkblot test, Thematic Apperception test (TAT) • Self report test • Assesses personality traits by asking test takers about their preferences and behaviors. . Eg. MMPI (Minnesota Multi-Phasic Personality Inventory