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  1. Personality Chapter 14 McElhaney

  2. Personality is really about Similarities and Differences in human behavior. AP Outline Topics Personality Theories Psychodynamic Social Cognitive Approach Theories Humanistic Approach Theories Trait Approach Eyesnick Theory Allport’sTrait Theory Cattell 16 Source Traits Big 5 model of Personality Biological Trait Theory Assessing Personality Objective Personality Tests (questionnaires) Projective Personality Test (Rorschach) Personality + Employee Selection Observation • Personality Theories and Approaches • Assessment Techniques • Self-concept, Self-esteem • Growth and Adjustment

  3. What is personality? • How is personality Assessed? • How are trait theories associated with Personality? • What are the major Approaches? • What questions do these approaches answer? • What is the differences between approaches? • Which theory really focuses on Self-concept or Self-esteem?

  4. To Understand One’s Personality: Developmental Experiences and cultural influences Genetic + Biological characteristics Perceptual and Information processing habits Biases Typical patterns of emotional expression Social Skills

  5. Personality • Definition- “a person’s unique pattern of thinking, emotions, and behavior.” • Refers to consistency in who you are, have been and will become. • Is a blend of talent, values, hopes, loves, hates, and habits…

  6. Basics • Each of us have consistent behavior patterns that define our personality • Predictable- we can predict how people will act • Personality- is closely related to traits • Can be understood as a manifestation of Mental conflicts • Is effected by learning • Is effected by social situations • Relate to how people perceive themselves

  7. Basics 2 • Psychologists use: • Interview • Direct observation • Questionnaires • Shyness= public self-consciousness • Behavior- is influenced by self-monitoring • Self-monitoring- is a process of observing, regulating, and controlling personal behavior and image we display To assess personality

  8. Self Concept • Consists of all your ideas, perceptions and feelings about who you are • Guides our behavior • Problems can arise with inadequate or inaccurate self concept

  9. Self Esteem • High esteem = confident, proud, self-respecting • Rises with success • Low Esteem- Falls= with negative self evaluation • Examples- insecure, lacking in confidence, self-critical • Genuine Esteem is accurate appraisal of strengths + weaknesses

  10. Personality Theories • Are frameworks to understand personality • 5 major Theories • Trait Theory • Psycho-Dynamic • Behavioristic • Social Learning • Humanistic

  11. Match the Personality Theory • Focuses on private, subjective experience, and personal growth • Effect of conditioning +Learning = effects of external environment • Focuses on inner workings of personality • Especially internal conflicts & struggles • To learn what traits makeup personality + how they relate to actual behavior • Attribute differences in personality to socialization, expectations+ and mental processes

  12. Psychology of Personality • Personality factors • Who are you? • How do you think? • How do you behave and express feelings? • Personality is not character (is a term of evaluation- friendly, outgoing, honest with moral values… • Personality is not temperament (hereditary aspects – sensitivity, irritability, distractibility typical mood)

  13. Trait Theory Most people describe others by referring to the kind of people they are To the thoughts , feelings, and actions that are most typical of them To their needs These statements describe personality Traits

  14. Personality Traits • Traits are- stable qualities that a person shows in most situations. Quantitative-How much of a quality they have- • Are inferred from observed behaviors • Sociable, orderly, intelligent, shy, sensitive, creative • Types= Qualitative differences Personality types= people who have several traits in common = what class do they belong • Categories of include- popular, athletic, motherly • Maladjusted, Well Adjusted…

  15. Trait Approach • Trait is a stable + enduring quality that a person shows in most situations. • To be considered a personality trait it must be typical of your behavior • Ancient Greeks- found 4 different types of temperament

  16. Hans Eysneck and Traits Eysenck believed that many personality traits are related to whether you are mainly introverted or extroverted and whether you tend to be emotionally stable or unstable (highly emotional). These characteristics, in turn, are related to four basic types of temperament first recognized by the early Greeks. The types are: melancholic(sad, gloomy), choleric(hot-tempered, irritable), phlegmatic(sluggish, calm), and sanguine(cheerful, hopeful). (Adapted from Eysenck, 1981.)

  17. Eysenck: • Why do some people have certain traits and other not? • Used Factor Analysis also • Said: • Most people’s traits could be described using 2 main dimensions: Introversion/Extraversion and Emotionality/Stability (neuroticism) • Introversion/Extraversion • Extroverts are sociable, outgoing, like parties, group activities, take risks, like excitement and change • Introverts tend to be: • Quiet, thoughtful, reserved, solitary pursuits, avoid social involvement • Emotionality/Stability • Emotionality: • Moodiness, restlessness, worry, anxiety • Stability: • Calm, even tempered, relaxed, emotionally stable • Eysenck said, there are degrees of emotionality/stability and introversion/extraversion • Trait patterns can be seen and are predictable • Bio-connection- inherited differences in nervous system are factors- • Brain differences • Biological differences in: • Level of arousal • Sensitivity to stress • Sensitivity to environmental stimulation • “People who inherit a nervous system that normally operates below their optimum arousal level will always be on the lookout for excitement change social contact in order to increase arousal=extroverted • Conversely- people who are regularly over aroused will avoid excitement to reduce to a more optimal arousal…

  18. Identified different kinds of traits Subjective Classifying Common traits Characteristics shared by most members of a culture Tells us similarities in a culture Individual Traits Defines a person of unique qualities… Gordon Allport and Classifying Traits

  19. Cardinal Traits Basic trait easily visible to a person’s activities Few people have cardinal traits “Trait that literally Drives/guide’s your life.” Mother Teresa- Compassion Central traits- Basic building blocks of personality Small # of traits (7) tell clear story of personality Allport 2

  20. Allport Secondary Traits • Less consistent • Superficial aspects • Food preferences • Attitudes • Political opinion • Musical tastes

  21. Wanted to know how traits were interlinked Found surface traits-make up visible areas of - personality Occur in clusters Appear often Seen as a basic trait Used statistics Called Factor Analysis Psychologists correlates and looks for patterns Associated with traits 16 Source traits Raymond Cattell

  22. Cattell 16 Source Traits • All are needed to Fully describe a personality • Created a questionnaire • “16 Personality Factor Questionnaire” (16PF) • Used to create a trait profile • Represented in a graph or score based on traits

  23. The Big 5- “5 Factor Model” • Cattell’s (16 PF) was reduced to 5 Universal dimensions • That can predict how people will act in various circumstances (used to compare personalities) • Extroversion • Agreeableness • Conscientiousness • Neuroticism • Openness to Experience

  24. Big 5 trait factors • 1. how extro or introverted ? • 2. Agreeableness- how agreeable= friendly, nurturing, caring vs. cold, indifferent, self-centered, spiteful • 3. Conscientious- How self-disciplined, responsible/achieving vs. irresponsible, careless, undependable • 4. Neuroticism- how negative, upsetting emotions- • High neuroticism= anxious, emotionally sour, irritable and unhappy. • 5. Openness to Experience how open to experience are you • Any trait you can name will be tied to one of the five factors

  25. Which is more important?Personality traits or External Circumstances • Both • Personality traits are consistent & can predict behavior • Situations influence behavior • Traits interact with situations to determine how we act.

  26. Psycho-Dynamic Theory of Personality • Not focused on traits-but under the surface • Believe our actions are based on hidden unconscious needs • “Our personalities, behavior and behavior disorders are determined mainly by basic drives, and past psychological events. • People may not know why they feel, think or act the way they do?

  27. Freud • There is an unconscious part of personality • And Personality is determined by unconscious psychological processes • Structure of personality • Saw personality as 3 mental structures • Id • Ego • Superego = Interaction of 3 Behavior

  28. The Id • Includes innate biological instances + urges • Self serving irrational, impulsive, • Totally unconscious • Operates on Pleasure Principle • I.E., seeks to express- pleasure urges • (Id is) Energy for psyche=personality • AKA the libido • Id is the energyfor the psyche=libido • Libido comes from life instincts (eros)

  29. Freud 3 • Freud said the libido drives: • Sexual desires • Survival • Pleasure thinking • Death instinct = (Thanatos)- produces destructive + aggressive urges

  30. Ego • Ego is the executive- “Directs energies supplied by id.” • Mediates between the Id & reality • Id is expressed through the Ego • Id= desires to- ego- reality • Ego– guided by reality Principle • Delays action until it is practical or appropriate • Thinking, planning, problem solving, + deciding • In conscious control of personality (Changes)

  31. Super Ego • Super ego- the judge, or Censor • Internal parent- to keep order of behavior • Thinking, planning, problem solving + deciding • In conscious control of personality • Conscience when punished, when standards of the conscience are not met= guilt feelings

  32. Ego Ideal • Reflects all behavior- parent approved of+ rewarded • Source of goals + aspirations • When standard are met = pride • Weak Super Ego= delinquent, criminal, anti-social personality • Harsh Super Ego= inhibition, rigidity, unbearable guilt

  33. Freud Continued • Said- Id + superego + Ego are conflicting mental processes • When in conflict (especially sexually)–then • Displacement or • Sublimation occur- (sexual energy is directed to other activities)

  34. Freud and Anxiety • Freud said most internal struggles are re-channeled energies typify most personality functioning. • Anxiety- is the result of when ego is threatened or overwhelmed • Neurotic Anxiety results when ego can barely keep Id under control. (individuals are struggling with forbidden drives) • Moral Anxiety- occur with threats of punishment from the superego • Ego defense mechanisms- are used to calm these anxieties • Rationalization, Denial, Projection, Repression, Regression

  35. Levels of Awareness • Freud said- behavior- expresses unconscious forces • The unconscious holds repressed memories + emotions plus drives of Id • (also a limbic system connection ) • Unconscious thoughts feelings-urges may slip into behavior in symbolic form

  36. Freud and Personality Development • Freud said “Core of personality is formed before age 6” • Psycho-Sexual Stages= erotic (broad categories of sources of pleasure) childhood urges have lasting effects on development

  37. 4 Psycho Sexual Stages • Each different phase has a different phase becomes a child primary erogenous zone (area for experiencing pleasure) • Adult Personality traits – can be traced to fixations • Fixations- arise from unresolved conflicts in childhood- 1. over indulgence in one stage 2. frustration at stage

  38. 4 Stages • Oral- • Anal • Phallic • (Latency- sexual aspects are subdued till adolescence) • Genital

  39. Neo-Freudians • Close to Freuds ideas • Accepted broad features of Freudian theory • Horney • Adler • Jung

  40. Alfred Adler (1937) • Broke from Freud • Disagreed with Freud’s • Emphasis on Unconscious • Emphasis on Instinctual drives • Emphasis on Sexuality • Believed we are social creatures controlled by social urges • Main force of personality=striving for superiority • Struggling to overcome imperfections • We have a drive for competence, mastery of shortcomings

  41. Said “The power behind the development of personality comes not from the Id impulse but from innate desire to overcome infantile feelings of helplessness and to gain some control over the environment.”

  42. Adler 2 • Said- Everyone experiences inferiority feelings • Because we begin small weak + relatively powerless • Inferiority also comes from personal limitations • We compensate for limitations

  43. Adler • We each have a unique style of life = personality pattern • Formed by age 5 indicated by earliest memory that can be recalled • Also said we have a creative self- • Humans create their personalities through choice and experience

  44. Karen Horney (1855-1952) • Close to Freud’s view- except the gender bias • Said • Basic Anxiety occurs- when people feel isolated and helpless in a hostile world • Feelings come from childhood experience • Personality is affected when people try to control anxiety by exaggerating a single mode of interacting • Move toward= dependent- love, support, friendship • Move away= independent, withdrawal, loner, strong • Move Against= hostile, attacking, competing, seeking power

  45. Carl Jung (1875-1961) • Student of Freud • Developed his own ideas • Used Ego=Conscious • Identified the Persona- “Mask” that exists between the ego and the outside world, the public self to others • (which makes up the personality)

  46. Introverts Shy Egocentric Attention is focused inward Energy directed mainly inward Extroverts Bold Outgoing Attention directed outward Energy directed mostly outward Jung said

  47. Jung and Personal Unconscious • Used the term- Personal unconscious- instead of the Freudian “Unconscious” • Is a mental storehouse for individual’s experience feelings and memories

  48. Jung and Collective Unconscious • A deep mental storehouse for unconscious ideas and images • Shared by all humans • Called Archetypes • Examples- all humans share experience: • Birth, death, power, god figures, mother, father, Earth, evil, rebirth

  49. Archetypes (arkehtypes) • Found in collective unconscious • They cause us to respond emotionally to symbols of birth, death, energy, animals, evil • Jung found archetypes in art, religion, myths, dreams in every culture.