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    1. CHAPTER 2 Personality

    2. What is personality? Definition: a pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world Factors that influence personality: (biological and genetic factors, life experiences, the way we think about ourselves, the way we behave toward each other)

    3. Four Theoretical Perspectives on Personality Psychodynamic Behavioral and Social Cognitive Humanistic Trait

    4. Psychodynamic Perspectives Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory Views personality as being primarily unconscious (beyond awareness) and as developing in stages Freudian slip (e.g., While hugging Tom, Barbara says, I love you Jeff.)

    5. Three Structures of Personality Id Ego Superego (our conscience)

    6. Defense Mechanisms Repression-(memory loss)most important Rationalization-(explain away) Displacement-(transfer feelings) Sublimation-(replace urges/impulses) Projection-(blame others) Reaction formation-(become opposite) Denial-(fail to acknowledge) Regression-(become childlike)

    7. Five Stages of Freuds Psycho-analytic Theory Oral (first 18 months) Anal (18-36) Phallic (3-6) Latency (6-puberty/adolescence) Genital (adolescence and adulthood)

    8. Revised Psychodynamic Perspectives Karen Horneys Sociocultural Theory Argued that sociocultural influences on personality development should be considered. Strongly rejected the notion of penis envy. Carl Jungs Analytic Theory Believed that because of their common past, all human beings share a collective unconscious, which is expressed through archetypes. Alfred Adlers Individual Psychology Believed that people are motivated by purposes and goals; they are creators of their own lives. Identified concepts related to ones strive for superiority (e.g., compensation; overcompensation; inferiority complex; superiority complex).

    9. Behavioral and Social Cognitive Perspectives Focus on the environment, experience, and observable behavior. Theorists analyze how people learn to behave in particular ways.

    10. Behavioral and Social Cognitive Perspectives (cont.) Three Types of Learning: Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Observational Learning (modeling)

    11. Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov Emphasized a learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a response similar to the response to the meaningful stimulus. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) e.g., meat powder Unconditioned Response (UCR) e.g., salivation Conditioned Stimulus (CS) e.g., metronome/bell Conditioned Response (CR) e.g., salivation

    12. Operant Conditioning B. F. Skinner Emphasized a form of learning in which the consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behaviors occurrence (Also called instrumental conditioning) Reinforcement (positive vs. negative) Extinction Punishment (positive vs. negative)

    13. Social Cognitive Theory & Observational Learning Albert Bandura; Walter Mischel Social cognitive theory: states that behavior, environment, and cognitive factors are important in understanding personality Observational learning: learning that occurs when a person observes and imitates someone elses behavior (a.k.a. imitation or modeling)

    14. Humanistic Perspectives Stress a persons capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose ones own destiny, and positive human qualities. Carl Rogers Person-Centered Theory Stressed the importance of becoming a fully functioning person Related concepts: self-concept; unconditional positive regard; empathy; genuiness

    15. Humanistic Perspectives (cont.) Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Emphasized idea that people must satisfy their basic needs before they try to satisfy higher needs. Hierarchy of needs sequence: physiological; safety; love and belongingness; esteem; and self-actualization

    16. Trait Perspectives Trait: an enduring characteristic that tends to lead to certain behaviors Theories state that personality consists of broad, enduring dispositions that tend to lead to characteristic responses Gordon Allport is referred to as the father of trait theory. Believed that each individual has a unique set of personality traits. Argued that if we can determine a persons traits, we can predict how that person might behave in various circumstances.

    17. Trait Perspectives (cont.) Hans Eysencks Dimensions of Personality Believed that three main dimensions are needed to explain personality (introversion-extraversion; stable-unstable; psychoticism) Costa and McCraes Big Five Personality Factors Believed that there are dimensions of personality, the supertraits that describe a persons fundamental traits (openness; conscientiousness; extraversion; agreeableness; neuroticism) Walter Mischels Situationism Believed that personality often varies from one context to another. Trait-Situation Interaction Views personality as depending on both traits and situations.

    18. Traits, Situations, & Culture Individualism vs. Collectivism

    19. Measuring Personality Projective Tests (geared toward unconscious thought uses ambiguous stimuli e.g., Rorschach Inkblot test; Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)) Self-Report Tests (self-report objective tests e.g., Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI); Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Personality Inventory-Revised; Hogan Personality Inventory) Behavioral Assessment (direct observation) Cognitive Assessment (interviews/questionnaires)