Personality • Chapter 10
Activity • On a ½ sheet of paper- write a list of words/characteristics that describe your personality (tear off the empty half)
Get a partner who knows you- give them the empty half sheet with your name on it • Your partner should now describe you
Give the list back to the person • Compare the list you wrote, with the list your partner wrote • Are there similarities & differences? Why?
How are people similar? • How are people different? • What makes you unique?
Personality • A person’s unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving.
Theories of Personality Different theories tell us how and why we have the personality we do.
Psychoanalysis- Freud • Personality is determined from your unconscious desires/ conflicts (sexual & aggressive)
Consciousness • Unconscious- what you don’t know is there- formed in early childhood • Preconscious- you don’t know, but can get easily • Conscious- what you know and can remember
Accessing the Unconscious Mind • The Freudian Slips • Freud's term for these was "faulty action" In every case there is presumed to be an unconscious determinant of the faulty action, which can sometimes be inferred directly from the context.
Psychoanalytical ApproachAccessing the Unconscious Mind • The Freudian Slip - Speech • "As I was telling my husb—" before abruptly breaking off and correcting herself: "As I was telling President Bush." • Condeleeza Rice • Does the Secretary of State have a tormented life??
Psychoanalytical ApproachAccessing the Unconscious Mind • The Freudian Slip - Speech • “Please do not give me any bills, because I cannot swallow them” (Patient meant to say pills, but was really preoccupied by financial stresses) • “You’re the breast dressed woman here.” (Man to his neighbor’s wife at costume party. Should have said best. Does this men he lusts after her?)
Psychoanalytical ApproachAccessing the Unconscious Mind • The Freudian Slip - Body • “Yes, I really like you.” (Hands on hips and legs crossed? Body-language indicates defiance and un-acceptance.) • “No, I never cheated on you.” (Playing with an ear and a shifty gaze? Indicates lying, avoiding the truth.”)
Psychoanalytical ApproachDeveloping Personality • The battle for satisfaction between the unconscious mind and our conscious awareness takes place on three mental battlefields: • ID • EGO • SUPEREGO
Freud’s personality structure • Id- At Birth • Unconscious • Pleasure Principle • Irrational, instinctual, Immediate
Ego- comes with experience • Reality Principle • Part Conscious (un, pre) • Organized, rational, acceptable ways to desire • Mediator
Superego- (5 or 6) • Morality Principle • Partly Conscious (un, pre) • Values, acceptable behavior, “conscience”, guilt-shame-anxiety
Ego Defense Mechanisms • Your EGO must safely and responsibly satisfy your ID, while keeping in mind your SUPEREGO
Too much for the ego= anxiety • Reality is distorted to keep away the anxiety
Defense Mechanism • Your mind’s way of reducing internal stress caused by excess anxiety
Repression Excluding from consciousness all anxiety producing thoughts, feelings, impulses
You can’t remember anything about a car accident you had two weeks ago • The accident produces too much anxiety- so it “goes away”
Regression • Behaving in a way that is characteristic of earlier development (childlike).
My 10 year old is sucking her thumb all of a sudden, she stopped at age 2. • After a divorce (she can’t handle the idea) she reverts back to a “safer” time
Sublimation • The Transfer of unwanted behaviors into something less harmful. • Freud considered it the only healthy defense mechanism
A person who is angry may work out and get in shape as a result • A person that is sexually frustrated may become an artist and release the pent up energy and emotion into great works of art.
Identification • When a person changes some aspect of their personality to be more like others – thus reducing anxiety. • Occurs on a subconscious level – not just mimicking
Reaction formation • Thinking or behaving in a way that is the extreme opposite of unacceptable urges or impulses
Girls have cooties and boys are gross • Pre-puberty will often be frightened of their sexual awakenings so they express the opposite feelings
Undoing • Unconscious repentance that involves atoning for an unacceptable thought or action with a second thought or action
You steal from the grocery store. You give a lot money to the salvation army • You cheat on a test, you buy Mrs. Andes flowers
Displacement • Redirection of impulse toward a “safe” alternative
I go home and kick my dog. • I was really upset because my seniors miss too many days of class, I can’t hurt them, so I pick something I can hurt
Rationalization • Justifying your actions/ feelings with another explanation- not your true feelings
I’m glad I didn’t get into that college- the drive would have been too far. • You were really upset about not getting in, but can’t face that anxiety
Projection • Giving your own unacceptable urges or qualities to others.
I don’t understand how he doesn’t get a detention- he is always late to class! • You have been late 123 times, but you don’t talk about YOU.
A married woman who is sexually attracted to a co-worker accuses him of flirting with him
Denial • Failing to recognize or acknowledge the existence of information that causes anxiety.
No, I don’t have a drinking problem, I can stop anytime I want. • You are an alcoholic- your friends and family all know it, but you won’t admit it.
Defense Mechanisms • Give examples from personal experience of each of the defense mechanisms (see table 10.1, 401). Why do people use defense mechanisms?
Psychosexual Stages • Freud’s theory of sexual development • “Sexual” means whatever brings pleasure, not procreation
Different sexual urges are expressed through different parts of the body at different ages. • The “pleasure centers”
If too much or too little “energy” is expressed during each stage- a person can become “fixated” • Fixated stages affect your personality
Oral Stage • Birth to 1 ½ • Pleasure through eating, biting, putting everything in mouth