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Personality

Personality

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Personality

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  1. Personality

  2. Personality • Distinctive patterns of behavior, including thoughts and emotions that characterize each individual’s adaptation the situations of his/her life. • Personality behaviors are: • Generally consistent • Distinguishing • Situation related

  3. Personality is intriguing, but... • Single measures of personality cannot predict specific brand-purchase behaviors. • CAD Theory • Compliant • Aggressive • Detached

  4. Psychoanalytic Theory • Freud • Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivation and personality. • Personality forms as a struggle between physiological drives and social pressures.

  5. Cornerstone of Freudian Theory • Personality is the product of three interacting forces: • Id • Superego • Ego

  6. Marketing Applications • Consumer purchases are a reflection and extension of the consumer’s own personality. • Offer packaging and promotions that appeal to impulsive behavior. • Fantasy appeals. • Projective research techniques.

  7. Non-Freudian Theories • Social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality. • Personalities continue to develop as adults. • Several different theories: • CAD theory • Jung (Meyers-Briggs personality types)

  8. Trait Theory • Approach personality as a set of psychological traits. • Trait is a relatively enduring characteristic which differentiate people from each other. • When identified and measured, traits are useful in predicting brand or store preference and other types of consumer behavior.

  9. Traits Associated with the Likelihood to Innovate or not to Innovate • Consumer innovativeness • Dogmatism • Social character • Optimum stimulation level • Variety-novelty seeking

  10. Consumer Materialism • Value acquiring and showing off possessions. • Are particularly self-centered and selfish. • Seek lifestyles full of possessions. • Have many possessions that do not lead to greater happiness.

  11. Fixated Consumption Behavior • Passionate interest in object or product category. • Willingness to go to great lengths to get object of interest. • Dedication of discretionary time and money to the object.

  12. Compulsive Consumption Behavior • Abnormal behavior. • Addicted to consumption. • Out-of-control consumers.

  13. Consumer Ethnocentrism • Ethnocentric consumers feel it is wrong to purchase foreign-made products. • CETSCALE. • Marketers can target ethnocentric consumers by stressing national themes.

  14. Cognitive Personality Traits • Need for cognition • Consumers who like lots of information, enjoy thinking. • Visualizers vs. verbalizers • Consumers’ preference for information presented visually or verbally.

  15. Self-Concept Theory • A consumer’s thoughts and feelings in reference to him or herself as an object. • Self-image. • We expect consumers’ behaviors to be consistent with their self-images.

  16. Self-images • Actual self-image • Ideal self-image • Social self-image • Ideal social self-image • Expected self-image

  17. Self-images • Actual self-image • Ideal self-image • Social self-image • Ideal social self-image • Expected self-image

  18. The Extended Self • Human emotion is connected to possessions we value. • Possessions are considered to be extensions of the self • Actually • Symbolically • Conferring status

  19. My ______ holds a special place in my life. My ______ is central to my identity. I feel emotionally attached to my ______. My ______ helps me narrow the gap between what I am and try to be. If my ______ was stolen, I would feel as if part of me is missing. I would be a different person without my _____. I take good care of my ______.

  20. The Altered Self • Consumers who are not satisfied with themselves will use self-altering products in an attempt to change their self-image.

  21. Brand Personality • Brand personification--consumers transform perceptions of product characteristics into human-like character. • Sincerity • Excitement • Competence • Sophistication • ruggedness

  22. Brand Gender • Brands can take on gender. • Generally associated with whether or not males or females predominately use product.

  23. Brand Color • Certain colors convey personality characteristics. • RED • SILVER, GOLD • GREEN • WHITE