Personality Chapter 13 Lecture 14
Psychoanalytic Perspective Culver Pictures Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Defense Mechanisms The ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality. Repression Regression Reaction Formation Projection Rationalization Displacement Denial
Psychosexual Stages Freud divided the development of personality into five psychosexual stages.
Identification • Oedipus complex • Electra complex From the K. Vandervelde private collection
Thematic Apperception Test(TAT) make up stories about ambiguous scenes. Lew Merrim/ Photo Researcher, Inc.
Rorschach Inkblot Test Lew Merrim/ Photo Researcher, Inc.
Projective Tests: Criticisms Critics argue that projective tests lack both reliability (consistency of results) and validity (predicting what it is supposed to).
The Trait Perspective An individual’s unique constellation of durable dispositions and consistent ways of behaving (traits) constitutes his or her personality.
Exploring Traits Each personality is uniquely made up of multiple traits. Allport & Odbert (1936), identified almost 18,000 words representing traits.
Factor Analysis Hans and Sybil Eysenckreduced personality down to two polar dimensions, extraversion-introversion and emotional stability-instability.
Biology and Personality • Personality dimensions are influenced by genes. • extraverts seek stimulation because their normal brain arousal is relatively low. • Differences in children’s shyness and inhibition may be attributed to autonomic nervous system reactivity.
MMPI The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests.
Questions about the Big Five Quite stable in adulthood. However, they change over development. 1. How stable are these traits? Fifty percent or so for each trait. 2. How heritable are they? These traits are common across cultures. 3. How about other cultures?
The Person-Situation Controversy Trait theorists argue that behaviors from a situation may be different, but average behavior remains the same. Therefore, traits matter.
Jaydon lacks any recognition that his alcohol abuse and neglect of his family are leading to the destruction of both family and career. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Jaydon shows signs of a: A. strong ego. B. weak id. C. strong superego. D. weak ego.
El Salvadorans have a saying: “The thief thinks everyone else is a thief.” This most clearly relates to the defense mechanism of: A. displacement. B. rationalization. C. projection. D. regression.
Bryce often acts so daring and overly confident that few people realize he is actually riddled with unconscious insecurity and self-doubt. Bryce best illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as: A. reaction formation. B. projection. C. displacement. D. rationalization.
Children who have witnessed a parent’s murder report memories that most clearly challenge Sigmund Freud’s concept of: A. rationalization. B. the Oedipus complex. C. displacement. D. repression.
Shari is a rather anxious person. Since she is so insecure, she frequently seeks out the reassurance of others. On which of the Big Five characteristics would Shari likely score high? A. neuroticism B. extraversion C. openness D. conscientiousness