Download
personality n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Personality PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Personality

Personality

229 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Personality

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Personality

  2. Defining and Measuring Personality • “Who am I?” – what makes a personal quality part of your personality? • characteristic,enduringpattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

  3. My observations of you Results from personality testing

  4. Assessing Personality Rorschach Inkblot Test TAT

  5. Assessing Personality Objective measures (examples from your text?)

  6. Different perspectives on personality • psychoanalytic • biological / trait • humanistic • social-cognitive

  7. The Psychoanalytic Perspective • Psychoanalysis • Background • Freud’s theory in a nutshell -- thoughts and actions are driven by unconscious motives and conflicts

  8. Psychoanalysis • Free Association • Interpretation of dreams and “slips”

  9. Freud’s Personality Theories • Personality Structure • Personality Development

  10. Personality Structure Mediator: Ego Internalized ideals: Superego Unconsciouspsychic energy: Id

  11. Personality Development • Psychosexual Stages • stages of development: pleasure-seeking energies focus on erogenous zones (i.e., oral, anal, phallic…) • Oedipus Complex

  12. Fixation • Freud’s belief that we can get “stuck” at an earlier stage (where conflicts were unresolved)… • Nail-biting, etc.? • Don’t be so “anal”

  13. Defense Mechanisms • The Ego’s methods of reducing anxiety – by unconsciously distorting reality • Repression • Regression • Displacement (“mechanisms of defense” exercise)

  14. What can we say about Freud? • Scientific? • Impact • Psychology & madness • Everyday language • Why? • Sex • Turn-of-the-century science • Applicable

  15. Biological / Trait perspective We’ve discussed this perspective a lot already this semester… Examples…?

  16. Humanistic Perspective • Background • Major theorists: • Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) -- self-actualization (the motivation to fulfill one’s potential) • Carl Rogers (1902-1987) -- growth and fulfillment of individuals -- requires: • genuineness • acceptance - unconditional positive regard • empathy

  17. Humanistic Perspective • Recognizes the impact of culture on personality • Individualism vs. Collectivism

  18. Internal personal/ cognitive factors (enjoy high-risk activities) Environmental factors (rock-climbing friends) Behavior (learning to rock climb) Social-Cognitive Perspective • Reciprocal Determinism • the interacting influences between personality, behavioral, & environmental factors

  19. Social-Cognitive Perspective • Personal Control • our sense of how well we control our environments • Locus of control scale (handout – if we have time) • External Locus of Control -- the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one’s personal control determine one’s fate • Internal Locus of Control -- the perception that one controls one’s own fate

  20. Uncontrollable bad events Perceived lack of control Generalized helpless behavior Social-Cognitive Perspective – Learned Helplessness • Learned Helplessness

  21. The Four Perspectives on Personality Perspective Behavior Springs From Assessment Techniques Evaluation Psychoanalytic Unconscious conflicts Projective tests aimed at A speculative, hard-to-test between pleasure-seeking revealing unconscious theory with enormous cul- impulses and social restraints motivations tural impact Trait Expressing biologically (a)Personality inventories A descriptive approach crit- influenced dispositions, such that assess the strengths icized as sometimes under- as extraversion or introversion of different traits estimating the variability (b)Peer ratings of behavior of behavior from situation patterns to situation Humanistic Processing conscious feelings (a)Questionnaire A humane theory that about oneself in the light of assessments reinvigorated contemporary one’s experiences (b)Empathic interviews interest in the self; criticized as subjective and sometimes naively self-centered and optimistic Social-cognitive Reciprocal influences between (a)Questionnaire assessments Art interactive theory that in- people and their situation, of people’s feelings of control tegrates research on learning, colored by perceptions of (b) Observations of people’s cognition, and social behavior, control behavior in particular criticized as underestimating situations the importance of emotions and enduring traits Personality- Summary