I. Skin A. Functions
B. Anatomy 1. 0.007 - 0.12mm thick 2. Supports the epidermis. Contains accessory organs ( , , nerves, sebum oil : Acene plugged sebum gland. secretion is important to microbial population, water, A.A. & lipids. pH Microbial produce which may inhibits potential .
II. Normal Skin flora organims/cm2. million on scalp & armpits 3 Main groups 1. No spores Ex. Propionibacteriumacene Anaerobic or aerotolerant. Grows hair follicles. Growth by oily conditions. Produced F.A. - defend the skin from infections Excess - produces , infect the , bone & (aids patients).
2. Staphylocci Cocci- Ex. Staphylococcus epidermidis Prevents by pathogen & maintain balance of skin flora. 3. Single Cell Fungi (Yeasts). t in the human body from early childhood. Mala sezia - common genus. Harmless - Scaley fair rash, - patchy scaliness (fair skin - dark patches, dark skin - light patches).
Review Name two functions of the skin. Why is it good for there to be natural floral on your skin? When do you have problems with the natural floral on your skin?
III. Skin Diseases caused by bacteria Most enter from a , but some may enter from the . A. Infection of a hair follicles 1. Symptoms - developed at the site of hair follicle. Treatment - non, 2. Furuncles (boils) Symptoms - developed from a ,pus.
3. Carbuncles - large area of swelling Symptoms - pus, areas of thick skin, fever with sever infections. Treatment - Pus must be drained from a lesion (surgical) & anti staphylococcal medicine must be given. Squeezing bad - may spread to the brain or bone.
Review How can these diseases spread through out the skin? What is the most common type of treatment for these skin diseases?
B. Scalded Skin Syndrome (Ritters) Staphylococcus aureus Potential fatal in infants, up to . Symptoms - of the body is . Fever, malaise, painful around the nose & mouth. With in hrs of redness, skin wrinkles & large blisters appear. Tender to the touch & feels like sand paper. - toxins carried by the bloodstream which causes the skin to split below the epidermis. - placed in protective isolation, antibiotics, all dead skin is removed.
C. Rocky Mountain Spotted fever - gram negative – Symptoms - headache, pain in muscles, joints, & fever ( ). Days, rash appears on palms, wrists, & feet. Eventually spreads to the rest of the body. in the mouth & nose. Effects the heart & kidney - result in shock & death if not caught early enough. Epidemiology - - affect mainly animals, some humans West - East -
Pathogens - , transmitted by ticks, mites, & lice. • Bite is painless, & symptoms don’t developed until 4 hours later. • Prevention - No Vaccines • Avoid tick infested areas. • Protective clothing. • Tick repellents. • Inspect body. • Remove tick without crushing, gasoline, whiskey. • Treat with antiseptic. • Treatment - Antibiotics - Tetracycline • Caught late the damage is irreversible. • With out treatment - fatal 20%, early 5%.
D. Lyme Disease Symptoms occurs in 3 stages 1st - days- weeks (erythema chronicummigrans). Red bump to a size of cm. symptoms. 2nd 2 - 8 weeks after skin rash appears. Effects the electrical condition of the . spells & fainting. of face, impairment in arms & legs 3rd 6 months after the rash appears. Joint pain & swelling.
Epidemiology - - affect mainly animals, some humans. East - % of ticks infected. Pathogens – - large spiral 11-25 um which is transmitted by deer ticks, Ixodes scapularis. Prevention Same as Rocky Mountain Spotted fever. Treatment Antibiotics – Doxycycline, Amoxicillin, & Eryhromycin
Review What causes Rocky Mountain Spotted fever & Lyme disease caused by? How are the transmitted? What is the best methods of dealing with these diseases? What should you do if you find a tick on you?
IV Skin Diseases caused by a virus A. Chicken Pox - Varicella, humans are the only host. Symptoms Lesions appear anywhere on the body (head, legs, arms, chest). of the adults that get it develop . Symptoms are more severe in children & adults. Major threat to newborns if mother develops it within 5 days of delivery & 2 days afterwards, mortality increases to 30%. Congenital varicella syndrome - underdeveloped limbs.
Pathogenesis 1. DNA Virus. 2. Enters the body via system. 3. Enters the sensory nerves, but conditions inside the nerve does not allow for full expression of the virus. Epidemiology 1. fewer than /year 2. of humans are infected by the age of 15. incubation is days. 3. Infection can spread days before rash & lesions crust over. Prevention 1. , live, attenuated varicella vaccine. 2. proven safe in over million cases.
B. Shingles - Herpes zoster Symptoms Occur at any age, but are more common in (weaken immunity). Enters the sensory nerves, but conditions inside the nerve does not allow for full expression of the virus. Rash lasts weeks, but pain may last for several months. along the nerve path.
C. Rubeola (Measles) - paramyxovirus family • Worldwide reduction of measles due to vaccines. Symptoms Fever, runny nose, cough, swollen - red eyes. Rash after a few days, begins on the forehead & spreads to the rest of the body. Lasts for about week. Complications arise from secondary infections due to weaken immunity - Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae. leads to pneumonia.
Brain involvement 1/1000 - brain damage, retardation, deafness, epilepsy. Subacutesclerosingpanencephalitis - 2 - 10 yrs after the measles, degeneration of the brain until death, 2 years. During pregnancy - , premature labor. Pathogenesis virus - paramyxovirus family. Enters through the respiratory route & spreads to the lymphatic system. Epidemiology Humans are the only host.
D. Rubella - German Measles Symptoms fever, cold, enlarge lymph symptoms. rash, pink spots. painful joints. Pathogenesis Enters through the Reproduces in the . Infected early in pregnancy - Congenial rubella syndrome - brain damage, deafness, heart defects. Infected in 1st 6 weeks of pregnancy, the of the fetuses have detectable injuries.
Epidemiology are the only natural host of adult didn’t get it. of rubella don’t get symptoms. Prevention Subcutaneous injection months of age. get long lasting immunity. E - benign tumor (papillonia) from the Papillomaviruses. Some genital warts are associated with cervical & uterine cancer.
V. Fungi (mold)- Ringworm, Jock itch, Athlete’s foot. • Mold ( ) invades hair, nails, & skin. • Symptoms None -> itching, rash, odor. Pathogenesis Normal skin is resistant to invasion. skin are easier to invade. - enzyme that breaks down keratin.
Prevention Cleanliness, dry-normal skin. Powder, open shoes. Changing of socks. Application of rubbing alcohol to nails. Treatment Over the counter medication - undecylenic acid.
Review What are the three classes of skin diseases?