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The Reproductive System

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  1. The Reproductive System By Kelly Dyess

  2. Purpose of this System Female System Male System Produce, maintain, transport the sperm. Produce and secrete male sex hormones that maintain the male reproductive cycle. • Produces egg cells, called ova or oocytes. • Transports ova to the site of fertilization. • House and nourish the embryo/ fetus/ baby/ from fertilization until birth. • Produce female sex hormones that regulate the reproductive cycle.

  3. Evolution of this System • To find out how this system and its organs came about, you have to first look at the origin of sexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction first began in single celled bacteria, which have no organs, millions of years ago. As the process of sexual reproduction evolved, a differentiation of gender and specialized organs appeared.

  4. Cooperation with the Other Body Systems • This system is responsible for the reproduction and the formation of new organisms. Without the reproductive system, there would be no other systems because they are all formed by the reproductive system during pregnancy.

  5. Maintaining Homeostasis • The reproductive system does not play a large part in maintaining the homeostasis within the human body. Removing parts of the reproductive system is not nearly as deadly as removing parts of the respiratory or circulatory systems.

  6. Female Organs Ovaries Follicle Oviduct Uterus Endometrium Cervix Vagina Hymen Labia Minora Labia Majora Clitorus Bartholin’s Gland

  7. Ovaries & Oviduct • Structure of ovaries- Small, oval-shaped glands that are located on either side of the uterus • Function- Produce eggs and hormones needed for reproduction • Structure of the oviduct- Tubes connecting the ovaries to the uterus. Contains cilia to help in the movement of the egg to the uterus. • Function- Site of most fertillization; connects ovaries and uterus.

  8. Uterus & Cervix • Structure of the uterus- Hollow, pear-shaped organ with an opening at the bottom (Cervix). • Function- Houses the fetus during pregnancy. • Endometrium- inner lining of the uterus; richly supplied with blood vessels. • Structure of Cervix- Ring of muscle at the bottom of uterus and leads to the vagina. • Function- Serve as a passage way for sperm to enter and menstrual blood to exit.

  9. Vagina & Bartholin’s Gland • Structure of the Vagina- Hollow tube running from cervix to the outside of the body. Also known as the birth canal. • Function- Serve as a passageway for sperm to enter the body. • Bartholin’s Gland- Glands located on either side of the vaginal opening. • Function- Secrete mucus for lubrication.

  10. Labia Minora & Majora • The labia minora (directly translated as “small lips”) surround the entrance to the vagina and the urethra. • The labia majora (directly translated as “large lips”) encloses and protects the other external reproductive organs.

  11. Clitorus & Hymen • Structure- the clitorus is a small, short shaft located at the beginning of the labia minora. • Function- It is a highly sensitized area stimulated by intercourse. • Structure- Vasculated membrane that partially covers the entrance to the vagina. • Function- Provide a cover for the vagina in early years.

  12. Pregnancy

  13. Menstrual Cycle

  14. Male Organs Seminal vesicle Vas Deferens Ejaculatory Duct Prostate Gland Bulbourethral Gland Epididymis Testes Scrotum Erectile tissue Glans penis Prepuce

  15. Testes & Scrotum • Structure of Testes- Consist of many highly coiled tubes, surrounded by many layers of connective tissue. • Function- Produce sperm • Stucture of Scrotum- Pouch of skin that houses the testes. • Function- allows the testes to hang outside the male body so that the sperm can be kept cool.

  16. Epididymis & Vas Deferens • Structure of Epididymis- coiled tubule located adjacent to the testes. • Function- Where sperm become motile and gain the ability to fertilize. • Structure of the Vas Deferens- Tube connecting the Epididymis to the urethra. • Function- Connect the epididymis to the urethra.

  17. Ejaculatory Duct & Seminal Vesicle • Structure of the Ejaculatory Duct- Short section where the Vas Deferens and the seminal vesicle • Function- transports sperm from the vas deferens to the urethra. • Structure of the Seminal vesicle- • Function- Secretes a fluid component of semen that lubricates and nourishes sperm.

  18. Prostate Gland & Bulbourethral Gland • Structure of the prostate gland- The largest of the semen excreting glands. • Function- Secretes anticoagulant enzymes and citrate directly into the urethra. • Structure of the Bulbourethral Gland- Pair of glands along the urethra, but below the prostate. • Function- They secrete a clear mucus that neutralizes any acidic urine remaining in the urethra.

  19. Penis & Prepuce • Structure of Penis- Composed of three cylinders of spongy erectile tissue. • Function- Necessary for transferring sperm into the woman’s reproductive system. • Prepuce- The fold of skin called the foreskin which may be removed through circumcision.

  20. Bibliography • • • • •