What is the primary function of the reproductive system? • To produce gametes • To produce reproductive hormones • To promote growth • To promote maturation
The testes are housed in the ______, which __________. • testicle; elevates sperm development temperature • epididymis; provides energy to the sperm • scrotum; lowers sperm development temperature • dartos muscle; lowers the scrotum
What metabolic effect would you expect if someone developed an autoimmune disease in which the person’s interstitial cells were destroyed? • Testosterone production would plummet. • Estrogen levels would decrease. • Testosterone levels would soar. • Estrogen levels would increase.
The ________ of the penis fill(s) with blood during sexual arousal, causing an erection. • corpus spongiosum • corpora cavernosa • urethra • glans penis
The _______ is (are) the main sperm-carrying duct that deposits sperm into the female reproductive tract. • epididymis • ductus deferens • seminiferous tubules • urethra
The ______ is (are) responsible for producing semen. • testes • seminal vesicles • prostate gland • b and c
As many as _______ sperm can be released with each ejaculation. • 300 • 3000 • 750 million • 750 trillion
Which of the following components in semen stimulates the uterus to contract in reverse peristalsis? • Fructose • Seminalplasmin • Alkaline fluid • Prostaglandins
Meiosis results in sperm formation in males. The critical meiotic step(s) that will ensure proper chromosome number in the resulting offspring is (are) ________. • the separation of homologous chromosomes • fertilization of the egg • the separation of sister chromatids • both a and c
Unlike females, males produce gametes throughout life due to the presence of ________ in their seminiferous tubules. • type A daughter cells • primary spermatocytes • spermatozoa • spermatogonia
A man and his wife have been unable to conceive a child. When examined, the man’s sperm are viable, swim unidirectionally, and are present in higher than average quantities. Which of the following could explain the inability of his sperm to penetrate an egg? • The sperm may have the improper chromosome number. • The midpiece contains too many mitochondria. • The acrosomal cap is deficient in the enzymes necessary to penetrate the egg. • The tail is longer than average.
Which of the following hormones do males secrete? • Testosterone • FSH • LH • All of the above
If testosterone were ineffective during development of a male’s brain, what might be the outcome? • The brain would develop without any noticeable difference from other males. • The brain might have a female orientation. • Gender identity may be ambiguous. • Both b and c are possible.
In a female, which of the following structures houses the oocytes? • Ovarian medulla • Fallopian tubes • Uterus • Ovarian cortex
Female reproductive hormones are produced by the ________. • primary oocytes • uterus • follicle cells • ovarian medulla
Ovulated oocytes enter the fallopian tubes: • directly, from contact with the ovary. • via undulations of the fimbriae that draw in the oocyte. • via diffusion. • via muscular contractions of the infundibulum expelling the oocyte at a rate of 200 m/sec.
The _______ of the uterus receives the embryo and provides nourishment until the placenta is formed. • endometrium • myometrium • perimetrium • epimetrium
The pH of the vagina is normally acidic, which keeps bacterial growth in check, but the vagina is still home to many bacteria and yeast in balance with each other. Occasionally, when a female takes antibiotics for a bacterial infection, a secondary yeast infection results. Why might this happen? • Yeast flourish and grow in the presence of antibiotics. • Yeast use the antibiotics as nutrient. • The removal of bacteria from the vagina allows yeast to grow at a faster rate than normal. • Yeast infections are a normal circumstance during a woman’s monthly cycle.
In females, the _______ is (are) the homologous structure to the glans penis in males. • vagina • labia majora • cervix • clitoris
What might happen in a nonpregnant woman who began taking high levels of progesterone and estrogen supplements followed by high doses of prolactin supplements? • The woman would spontaneously become pregnant. • There would be no detectable change in the woman’s body. • The woman’s mammary glands would begin lactating. • The woman’s vagina and uterus would atrophy.
Which of the following are risk factors for the development of breast cancer? • History of no, or short periods of, breast-feeding • Early onset of menses and late menopause • Family history of breast cancer • All of the above
What is the major difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis? • Spermatogenesis begins while the male fetus is in the uterus. • Oogenesis results in the formation of one viable oocyte whereas spermatogenesis results in the formation of four viable sperm. • Oogenesis is the result of several mitotic divisions. • Oogenesis is complete before ovulation occurs.
LH stimulates the production of ______ by the follicle thecal cells. • estrogen • progesterone • an oocyte • androgens
A woman who wants to ensure conception might buy an “ovulation predictor” kit. Which of the following hormones, when detected by the kit, would be the best indicator of imminent ovulation? • Estrogen • GnRH • LH • FSH
From a hormonal standpoint, why is the first day of menstrual bleeding counted as the first day of a new cycle rather than as the end of the previous cycle? • Hormone secretion from the pituitary peaks at day 1 and causes menstruation. • Without feedback from a fertilized zygote, the corpus luteum degenerates and pituitary hormones are no longer under ovarian negative feedback. • The cycle is coordinated with ovulation, so each time ovulation occurs, the cycle resets. • Menstrual flow is necessary to allow implantation of a fertilized zygote.
Which of the following is a secondary sexual characteristic promoted by estrogen? • growth of the mammary glands • enlargement of the external genitalia • stimulation of oogenesis • thickening of cervical mucus
What percentage of sperm carry the Y chromosome? • 10% • 25% • 50% • 75%
An embryo in week 9 of development is revealed to be male. Which of the following structures would be present in this embryo? • Wolffian ducts • Müllerian ducts • Gonadal ducts • Paramesonephric duct
In females, _______ is the stage of life when reproductive hormones first begin surging and reproduction is first possible. • menopause • amenorrhea • mittelschmerz • puberty
________ is the stage of life in females when reproductive hormones decline and menstrual cycles become erratic. • Menopause • Menarche • Mittelschmerz • Puberty