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BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

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BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

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  1. BUILDINGCONSTRUCTION

  2. Construction Classifications • Type I Fire Resistive • Type II Noncombustible • Type III Ordinary • Type IV Heavy Timber • Type V Wood-Frame

  3. Type I Fire Resistive • Maintains structural integrity thus allowing occupants to exit • Consists mainly of reinforced concrete • Structural members(walls, columns, beams, floors, roof) protected by blown on insulation or automatic sprinklers • Fire-resistive compartmentation

  4. Parking Garage

  5. Primary Hazards • Contents of the structure • Interior finishes • Difficult to ventilate • Difficult to breach for access or escape

  6. Type IINon-Combustible • Same as Type I, except that structural components lack the insulation or other protection. • All metal buildings fall into this classification • Materials without fire resistive ratings may be used in limited quantities • Often have flat, built up roofs

  7. Warehouse / Storage Facilities

  8. Primary Hazards • Contents of structure • Interior finishes • Fire extension to the roof can eventually cause the entire roof to fail • Unprotected structural steel components may fail due to heat

  9. Type IIIOrdinary • Exterior walls or structural members are made of non-combustible or limited combustible materials • Interior structural members are completely or partially made of wood • Relatively easy to vertically ventilate • Resists fire spread from the outside • For instance… This station.

  10. Most buildings in downtown Enumclaw

  11. Primary Hazards • Fire spreads through concealed spaces • Interior structural members vulnerable to fire • Susceptible to water damage

  12. Type IVHeavy Timber • Interior and exterior walls made of non-combustible or limited combustible materials • Other interior structural members are made of solid or laminated wood with no concealed spaces • Used in old factories, mills, warehouses, and old churches… ski lodges… log homes etc.

  13. Heavy Timber

  14. Primary Hazards • Massive amount of combustible contents can produce massive amounts of heat • Susceptible to fire spread from the outside • Susceptible to water damage

  15. Type VWood Frame • Structural components are made completely or partially of wood or other approved materials • Commonly used to construct typical single family residences and apartment buildings up to seven stories. • Easily breached for access, ventilation, or escape • Resistant to collapse from earthquake

  16. Single Family Residence

  17. Primary Hazards • Susceptible to fire spread from the outside and in. • Susceptible to total collapse due to fire or explosion • Contents of structure (Furniture, Carpet etc. burn hot and produce large amounts of toxins • Lightweight wooden trusses

  18. Non-Standard Construction • Many parts of North America allow non-standard buildings to be constructed under certain circumstances. • Structures do not conform to any of the standard construction types • Usually found on large properties in remote areas • One example is “hay bale construction” • Name another non-standard construction example…?

  19. Firefighter hazards related to building construction • Fire Loading • Combustible furnishings and finishes • Roof coverings • Wooden floors and ceilings • Large open spaces • Building collapse

  20. Construction Terminology

  21. Assembly • Two or more interconnected structural components combined to meet a specific design function or design requirement

  22. Balloon Frame Construction

  23. Bowstring Truss

  24. Sweet Potato Fries

  25. Bar Joist

  26. Beam

  27. Butterfly Roof

  28. Cantilever

  29. OSB (Oriented Strand Board)

  30. Flying Suit

  31. Chord

  32. Cockloft

  33. Column

  34. Compression

  35. Course

  36. Curtain Board / Wall

  37. Decking

  38. Drywall

  39. Eave

  40. Orange Flavored Drinks

  41. Engineered I-Beam

  42. Fire Door

  43. Fire Load

  44. Fire Wall

  45. Flat Roof

  46. Kool-Aid Man

  47. Gable Roof

  48. Gable Wall

  49. Gambrel Roof

  50. Girder