Construction Classifications • Type I Fire Resistive • Type II Noncombustible • Type III Ordinary • Type IV Heavy Timber • Type V Wood-Frame
Type I Fire Resistive • Maintains structural integrity thus allowing occupants to exit • Consists mainly of reinforced concrete • Structural members(walls, columns, beams, floors, roof) protected by blown on insulation or automatic sprinklers • Fire-resistive compartmentation
Primary Hazards • Contents of the structure • Interior finishes • Difficult to ventilate • Difficult to breach for access or escape
Type IINon-Combustible • Same as Type I, except that structural components lack the insulation or other protection. • All metal buildings fall into this classification • Materials without fire resistive ratings may be used in limited quantities • Often have flat, built up roofs
Primary Hazards • Contents of structure • Interior finishes • Fire extension to the roof can eventually cause the entire roof to fail • Unprotected structural steel components may fail due to heat
Type IIIOrdinary • Exterior walls or structural members are made of non-combustible or limited combustible materials • Interior structural members are completely or partially made of wood • Relatively easy to vertically ventilate • Resists fire spread from the outside • For instance… This station.
Primary Hazards • Fire spreads through concealed spaces • Interior structural members vulnerable to fire • Susceptible to water damage
Type IVHeavy Timber • Interior and exterior walls made of non-combustible or limited combustible materials • Other interior structural members are made of solid or laminated wood with no concealed spaces • Used in old factories, mills, warehouses, and old churches… ski lodges… log homes etc.
Primary Hazards • Massive amount of combustible contents can produce massive amounts of heat • Susceptible to fire spread from the outside • Susceptible to water damage
Type VWood Frame • Structural components are made completely or partially of wood or other approved materials • Commonly used to construct typical single family residences and apartment buildings up to seven stories. • Easily breached for access, ventilation, or escape • Resistant to collapse from earthquake
Primary Hazards • Susceptible to fire spread from the outside and in. • Susceptible to total collapse due to fire or explosion • Contents of structure (Furniture, Carpet etc. burn hot and produce large amounts of toxins • Lightweight wooden trusses
Non-Standard Construction • Many parts of North America allow non-standard buildings to be constructed under certain circumstances. • Structures do not conform to any of the standard construction types • Usually found on large properties in remote areas • One example is “hay bale construction” • Name another non-standard construction example…?
Firefighter hazards related to building construction • Fire Loading • Combustible furnishings and finishes • Roof coverings • Wooden floors and ceilings • Large open spaces • Building collapse
Assembly • Two or more interconnected structural components combined to meet a specific design function or design requirement