BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Captain Larry Campbell Red Shift
OBJECTIVES • 2-21.1. Identify basic structural characteristics of following building construction • 2-21.1.1. Wood Frame • 2-21.1.2. Ordinary • 2-21.1.3. Heavy Timber • 2-21.4.4 Non-Combustible • 2-21.5.5. Fire Resistant
OBJECTIVES • 2-21.2. Identify three hazards associated with wood truss and lightweight construction • 2-21.3. Identify dangerous building conditions created by fire and suppression activities • 2-21.4. Identify five indicators of building collapse
OBJECTIVES • 2-21.5. Identify the effects of fire and fire suppression activities on the following building materials • 2-21.5.1.Wood • 2-21.5.2 Masonry • 2-21.5.3 Cast Iron • 2-21.5.4. Steel • 2-21.5.6 Reinforced Concrete • 2-21.5.5 Gypsum wallboard • 2-21.5.7 Glass • 2-21.5.8 Plaster & Lath
OBJECTIVES • 2-21.6. Identify the following terms as they relate to building construction • 2-21.6.1.Veneer wall • 2-21.6.2. Party wall • 2-21.6.3. Fire wall • 2-21.6.4. Partition wall • 2-21.6.5. Cantilever wall/unsupported wall • 2-21.6.6. Load bearing
WHY STUDY BUILDING CONSTRUCTION? • To enable safe and effective fire attack planning • To alert FF to potential construction hazards • To alert FF to effects of fire and fire suppression activities on selected building materials
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS AND HAZARDS • Type I Fire Resistive • Structural members noncombustible or limited combustible • Primary hazards-contents • Ability to confine fire compromised by openings
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS AND HAZARDS • Type II Noncombustible • Similar to Type I only degree of fire resistance is less • Some cases materials with no fire resistance is used • Primary hazards-contents • Heat build up during fire may cause structural supports to fail • Roof materials may contribute to fire spread
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS AND HAZARDS • Type III Ordinary • Exterior walls and structural members noncombustible or limited combustible • Interior structural members almost all wood • Wood used has smaller dimensions than Type IV • Primary fire hazard is fire and smoke spread through concealed spaces • Hazards reduced by using fire-stops
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS AND HAZARDS • Type IV Heavy Timber • Exterior and interior walls and associated structural members noncombustible or limited combustible materials • Interior structures made of solid or laminated wood with no concealed spaces • Wood has large dimensions • Primary fire hazard combustible contents of structural members
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS AND HAZARDS • Type IV Continued • Because of massive amount of combustible materials there will be serious heat given off and may pose exposure protection problems • Usually found in very old mills, factories, and warehouse, and today in modern churches • Carpentersville- 10 W. Main Street, 11 East Main Street, and Eckert Door/GoldenBag, Inc.
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS AND HAZARDS • Type V Wood Frame • All walls and structural members are wood • Presents unlimited fire hazards, spread, collapse • May present serious exposure problems • Every new subdivision in Carpentersville,: GlenEagle, Kimball Farms, Aragon T/H, Willoughby Farms, and Keele Farms (examples)
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS AND HAZARDS • Type V Continued • “Old Town” Type V construction, however a lot of “balloon” construction. Balloon construction there are no fire stops. Fire in basement, better go straight up to attic and roof to check for extension. Modern construction is called “platform” construction, each floor is constructed on its own platform, thus acting as a fire-stop, reducing wall channels
BUILDING CONTRUCTION TERMS 2-21.6.
BUILDING CONTRUCTION TERMS • Veneer walls • Party wall • Fire wall • Partition wall • Cantilever/unsupported wall • Load bearing wall • Non –load bearing wall
BUILDING CONTRUCTION TERMS • Veneer Wall- decorative walls usually attached to the outside of load-bearing frame construction • Party Wall- load bearing wall that supports two adjacent structures • Fire Wall- separates two structures or divides a structure into smaller portions to prevent spread of fire
BUILDING CONTRUCTION TERMS • Partition Wall- non-load bearing wall that divides two areas within a structure • Cantilever/Unsupported Walls- freestanding wall usually found in shopping centers or churches • Load bearing Wall- walls which support structural weight • Non-load bearing Wall- interior finished wall, used to separate two rooms in a house/office
HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH LIGHTWEIGHT CONSTRUCTION AND TRUSS OBJECTIVE 2-21.2.
HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH LIGHTWEIGHT CONSTRUCTION AND TRUSS • Designed to support only their own weight • If one fails, a domino effect happens and they all fail • Rapid failure under fire conditions • Usually 5 to 10 minutes • Wood ¼ char • Steel 1000º F • NEVER TRUST THE TRUSS!
HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH LIGHTWEIGHT CONSTRUCTION AND TRUSS • Wooden floor truss are just as dangerous • Truss can be lightweight wood or metal
FF Hazards Related to Construction • Heavy fire loading • Combustible finishes and furnishings • Wood shake shingles • Wooden floors/ceilings and coverings • Large open spaces • Lightweight construction/truss • Construction, renovations, demolition
FF Hazards Related to Construction • Heavy content loading • Combustibles stored in high piles next to each other • Usually found in commercial and storage facilities • This may override sprinkler system and provide access problems • Proper inspection and enforcement effective in these type of facilities
FF Hazards Related to Construction • Combustible furnishings/finishes • Contribute to fire spread and smoke production • Wood shake shingles • Contribute to fire loading and spread • Prolonged exposure to fire may result in structural collapse • Wood shake shingles in subdivisions create the need for aggressive exposure protection
FF Hazards Related to Construction • Wooden floors and ceilings • Contribute to fire loading • Prolonged exposure may result in collapse • Usually found in Type V construction and in residential areas • Large open spaces • Contributes to spread • Warehouses, churches, large atriums, common attics, and theaters
EFFECTS OF FIRE on BUILDING MATERIALS OBJECTIVE 2-21.5.
EFFECTS OF FIRE on BUILDING MATERIALS • WOOD • Reaction depends on • Size • Smaller the size more likely to lose integrity • Moisture content • Application of water
EFFECTS OF FIRE on BUILDING MATERIALS • MASONRY • Minimally affected by fire • Mortar between masonry subject to deterioration and weakening from fire • Rapid cooling may cause to spall • Masonry needs to be inspected after fire
EFFECTS OF FIRE on BUILDING MATERIALS • CAST IRON • Found in old buildings • Bolts and other fastening devices may fail, permitting to large wall and floor collapses
EFFECTS OF FIRE on BUILDING MATERIALS • STEEL • Members elongate under heat • 50 foot beam may elongate up to 4 inches when heated to 1000º • If ends are restrained it will buckle or fail somewhere in the middle • Failure can be anticipated at 1000º
EFFECTS OF FIRE on BUILDING MATERIALS • REINFORCED CONCRETE • Loses strength and spalls • Heat may cause bond between concrete and steel causing collapse
EFFECTS OF FIRE on BUILDING MATERIALS • GYPSUM (Drywall) • Excellent heat-resistant & fire retardant properties • Will brake down under fire conditions • Members protected by gypsum could be exposed to high temps
EFFECTS OF FIRE on BUILDING MATERIALS • GLASS • Glass does not contribute to fire load, but resins in fiberglass will • Heated glass will crack when hit with a cool stream • PLASTER & LATH • Similar to gypsum • Large sections may fail during FF ops and fall and strike FF
FACTORS THAT INCREASE FIRE RISKS AND COLLAPSE • Construction, Demolition, and Renovations • Drywall not yet in place • Exposed wood framing • Lack of barriers- doors, windows, etc. • Open stairwells • More at risk for to Arson • In buildings, suppression systems not working yet • Blocked entrances/exits • Construction materials and equipment in the way
SIGNS OF COLLAPSE • Cracks or separations in walls • Evidence of existing building instability, i.e.-stars or tie rods • Loose bricks, blocks, and stones • Deteriorated mortar • Walls that appear to be leaning • Structural members that appear to be separating from walls • Prolonged fire exposure • Fires beneath heavy machines, compressors, roof top units, etc.
IF COLLAPSE APPAERS IMMINENT • Evacuate building • Set up collapse zone around perimeter of building • Allow NO Personnel or Apparatusto operate in zone • If fire streams are needed to be continued, they must be unmanned master streams