Bully Prevention In Positive Behavior Support Scott Ross & Celeste Rossetto Dickey University of Oregon Educational and Community Supports
Bullying – The Facts • The National School Safety Center (NSSC) called bullying the most enduring and underrated problem in U.S. schools. (Beale, 2001) • Up to 86 % of elementary school students report being harassed and bullied at school each year. (Smith & Sprague, 2000)
Bullying – The Facts Of boys considered to have serious bullying problems between 6th and 9th grades: • 60% had a least one criminal conviction, and • 40% had three or more arrests - by age 24. (Olweus, 1991; Committee for Children, 2001)
Past Attempts • Outcomes less than ideal • Maintenance a major issue • The role of bystanders not addressed
Goals • Define a set of core features for Bully Prevention • Define how to embed Bully Prevention into existing School-wide Expectations. • Provide current update from one research effort.
Main Ideas • “Bullying” is aggression, harassment, threats or intimidation when one person has greater status, control, power than the other.
Main Ideas • Bullying behavior typically becomes more likely because the “victims” or “bystanders” provide rewards for bullying behaviors. • Social attention • Social recognition • Social status
Challenges for Schools Although common and frequent, most bullying and harassment behaviors are exhibited outside of adult supervision.
Big Idea • All “bully proofing” skills are more effective if the school has first established a set of school-wide behavioral expectations.
CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~5% ~15% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students
Creating Effective Learning Environments • Create environments that are: • Predictable • Consistent • Positive • Safe
An Approach • What does NOT work • Identifying the “bully” and excluding him/her from school • Pretending that Bullying Behavior is the “fault” of the student/family/victim. • What does work • Define, teach and reward school-wide behavior expectations. • Teach all children to identify and label inappropriate behavior. • Not respectful, not responsible., not safe • Teach all students a “stop signal” to give when they experience problem behavior. • What to do if you experience problem behavior (victim, recipient) • What to do if you see someone else in a problem situation (bystander) • Teach all students what to do if someone delivers the “stop signal”
Do not focus on “Bullying” • Focus on appropriate behavior. • What is the behavior you want • “Responsible” • No mention of Bullying
Teaching Social Responsibility • Teach school-wide expectations first • Be respectful • Be responsible • Be safe • Focus on “non-structured” settings • Cafeteria, Gym, Playground, Hallway, Bus Area • Use same teaching format • If someone directs problem behavior toward you. • If you see others receive problem behavior • If someone tells you to “stop”
Embedding Bully-Prevention: One Example • Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support • Current status of research effort
Acknowledgements • Rob Horner, Ph.D • Bruce Stiller, Ph.D • Jeff Sprague, Ph.D
Caveats • Be sure to have PBS systems in place first! • BP-PBS is a Yellow Zone Intervention: Some kids may still need additional support
Delivering Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support • Problem Behaviors in: • Basketball, Four square, In between • Why do kids do it? • The candle and the glass • A clear, simple, and easy to remember 3 step response: Stop, Walk, Talk
Teach the “Stop Signal” • If someone is directing problem behavior to you, or someone else, tell them to “stop.” • How do you deliver the “stop signal” if you are feeling intimidated, harassed, bullied? • How do you deliver the “stop signal” if you see someone else being harassed, teased, bullied?
Teach “walk away” • How do we walk away so that the perpetrator gets the idea? • Remind students that most socially initiated problem behavior is maintained by peer attention. • Victim behavior inadvertently maintains taunt, tease, intimidate, harassment behavior. • Build social reward for “walking away” • Do not reward inappropriate behavior.
Teach “getting help” • Report problems to adults • Where is the line between tattling, and reporting? • Did you request, “stop” • Did you walk away?
Teaching a Reply • Eventually, every student will be told to stop. When this happens, they should do the following things • Stop what they are doing • Take a deep breath • Go about their day (no big deal) • These steps should be followed even when they don’t agree with the “stop”
How Adults Respond When any problem behavior is reported, adults follow a specific response: • Reinforce the student for reporting the problem behavior (i.e. "I'm glad you told me.") • Ask who, what, when and where. • Ensure the student’s safety. • Is the bullying still happening? • Is the reporting child at risk? • Fear of revenge? • What does the student need to feel safe? • What is the severity of the situation • "Did you tell the student to stop?" (If yes, praise the student for using an appropriate response) • "Did you walk away from the problem behavior?" (If yes, praise student for using appropriate response)
When the child did it right… Adults initiate the following interaction with the Perpetrator: • "Did ______ tell you to stop?" • If yes: "How did you respond?" Follow with step 2 • If no: Practice the 3 step response. • "Did ______ walk away?" • If yes: "How did you respond?" Follow with step 3 • If no: Practice the 3 step response. • Practice the 3 step response. • The amount of practice depends on the severity and frequency of problem behavior
Checking in • For chronic victims of bullying or harassment • At the beginning of recess, 1 adult should check in with the student and remind them about how to respond to problem behavior. • At the end of recess, check in again, ask about how it went, and reward them for their efforts.
Checking in • For chronic perpetrators of bullying or harassment • At the beginning of recess, check in with the student and remind them about how to reply if another student uses the 3 step response with them. • At the end of recess, check in again, ask about how it went, and reward them for their efforts.
Some Data on Problem Behavior During Recess: Pilot Study Rob Jeff Incidents of Problem Behavior at Recess Bruce Composite Peer Day
Contact Information • Scott Ross • firstname.lastname@example.org • Celeste Rossetto Dickey • email@example.com