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School-wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS ) What, Why, How

School-wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS ) What, Why, How

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School-wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS ) What, Why, How

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  1. School-wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS)What, Why, How Rob Horner University of Oregon www.pbis.org

  2. Goals • What: Define the core features of SWPBIS • Why: Define if SWPBS is appropriate for your school • How: Define the process for implementing SWPBIS -------------------------------------------------------- • Link: SWPBIS with (a) Academic Supports, (b) Mental Health and (c) Social, Emotional Learning • Establish: Quality, Equity, Efficiency as guiding themes.

  3. Main Messages • Supporting social behavior is central to achieving academic gains. • School-wide PBS is an evidence-based practice for building a positive social culture that will promote both social and academic success. • Implementation of any evidence-based practice requires a more coordinated focus than typically expected.

  4. Six Basic Recommendations for Implementing PBIS • Never stop doing what already works • Always look for the smallest change that will produce the largest effect • Avoid defining a large number of goals • Do a small number of things well • Do not add something new without also defining what you will stop doing to make the addition possible.

  5. Six Basic Recommendations for Implementing PBIS • Collect and use data for decision-making • Adapt any initiative to make it “fit” your school community, culture, context. • Families • Students • Faculty • Fiscal-political structure • Establish policy clarity before investing in implementation

  6. Michigan State Board of Education Positive Behavior Support Policy The vision of the State Board of Education is to create learning environments that prepare students to be successful citizens in the 21st century. The educational community must provide a system that will support students’ efforts to manage their own behavior and assure academic achievement. An effective behavior support system is a proactive, positive, skill-building approach for the teaching and learning of successful student behavior. Positive behavior support systems ensure effective strategies that promote pro-social behavior and respectful learning environments. Research-based positive behavior support systems are appropriate for all students, regardless of age. The principles of Universal Education reflect the beliefs that each person deserves and needs a positive, concerned, accepting educational community that values diversity and provides a comprehensive system of individual supports from birth to adulthood. A positive behavior support policy incorporates the demonstration and teaching of positive, proactive social behaviors throughout the school environment. A positive behavior support system is a data-based effort that concentrates on adjusting the system that supports the student. Such a system is implemented by collaborative, school-based teams using person-centered planning. School-wide expectations for behavior are clearly stated, widely promoted, and frequently referenced. Both individual and school-wide learning and behavior problems are assessed comprehensively. Functional assessment of learning and behavior challenges is linked to an intervention that focuses on skill building. The effectiveness of the selected intervention is evaluated and reviewed, leading to data-based revisions. Positive interventions that support adaptive and pro-social behavior and build on the strengths of the student lead to an improved learning environment. Students are offered a continuum of methods that help them learn and maintain appropriate behavior and discourage violation of codes of student conduct. In keeping with this vision, it is the policy of the State Board of Education that each school district in Michigan implement a system of school-wide positive behavior support strategies. Adopted September 12, 2006 …it is the policy of the State Board of Education that each school district in Michigan implement a system of school-wide positive behavior support strategies.

  7. Experimental Research on SWPBIS SWPBIS Experimentally Related to: Reduction in problem behavior Increased academic performance Increased attendance Improved perception of safety Improved organizational efficiency Reduction in staff turnover Increased perception of teacher efficacy Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), 100-115 Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 462-473. Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 133-148. Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, 1-26. Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, 133-145. Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), 1-14. Bradshaw, C., Waasdorp, T., Leaf. P., (in press). Effects of School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems and adjustment. Pediatrics. Waasdorp, T., Bradshaw, C., & Leaf , P., (2012) The Impact of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Bullying and Peer Rejection: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial.Archive of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine.2012;166(2):149-156

  8. Experimental Research on SWPBIS Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), 100-115 Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 462-473. Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 133-148. Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, 1-26. Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, 133-145. Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), 1-14. Bradshaw, C., Waasdorp, T., Leaf. P., (in press). Effects of School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems and adjustment. Pediatrics. Waasdorp, T., Bradshaw, C., & Leaf , P., (2012) The Impact of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Bullying and Peer Rejection: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial.Archive of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine.2012;166(2):149-156

  9. Academic-Behavior Connection Algozzine, B., Wang, C., & Violette, A. S. (2011). Reexamining the relationship between academic achievement and social behavior. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 13, 3-16. Algozzine, R., Putnam, R., & Horner, R. (2012). Support for teaching students with learning disabilities academic skills and social behaviors within a response-to-intervention model: Why it doesn’t matter what comes first. Insights on Learning Disabilities, 9(1), 7-36. Burke, M. D., Hagan-Burke, S., & Sugai, G. (2003). The efficacy of function-based interventions for students with learning disabilities who exhibit escape-maintained problem behavior: Preliminary results from a single case study. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 26, 15-25. McIntosh, K., Chard, D. J., Boland, J. B., & Horner, R. H. (2006). Demonstration of combined efforts in school-wide academic and behavioral systems and incidence of reading and behavior challenges in early elementary grades. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 8, 146-154. McIntosh, K., Horner, R. H., Chard, D. J., Dickey, C. R., and Braun, D. H. (2008). Reading skills and function of problem behavior in typical school settings. Journal of Special Education, 42, 131-147. Nelson, J. R., Johnson, A., & Marchand-Martella, N. (1996). Effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavioral disorders: A comparative analysis. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, 53-62. Wang, C., & Algozzine, B. (2011). Rethinking the relationship between reading and behavior in early elementary school. Journal of Educational Research, 104, 100-109.

  10. School-wide PBIS: Outcomes • Reduction in problem behavior • Improved academic performance • Improved perceived school safety • Reduction in staff turnover 31 176

  11. Number of Schools Implementing SWPBIS since 2000

  12. Count of School Implementing SWPBIS by State August, 2011 Illinois 12 States > 500 Schools Michigan

  13. Using PBIS to AchieveQuality, Equity and Efficiency • QUALITY: Using what works; Linking Academic and Behavior Supports • North Carolina (valued outcomes) • Michigan (behavior and literacy supports) • Commitment to Fidelity Measures • Building functional logic/ theory/ practice (Sanford) • EQUITY: Making schools work for all • Scott Ross • Russ Skiba • Vincent, Cartledge, May & Tobin • Bully prevention • EFFICIENCY: Working Smarter: Building implementation science into large scale adoption. • Using teacher and student time better. • Dean Fixsen/ Oregon Dept of Education

  14. Time Cost of aDiscipline Referral(Avg. 45 minutes per incident for student 30 min for Admin 15 min for Teacher)

  15. Pre PBIS Year 1 Year 2 Year 3

  16. What does a reduction of 850 office referrals and 25 suspensions mean? Kennedy Middle School • Savings in Administrative time • ODR = 15 min • Suspension = 45 min • 13,875 minutes • 231 hours • 29, 8-hour days • Savings in Student Instructional time • ODR = 45 min • Suspension = 216 min • 43,650 minutes • 728 hours • 121, 6-hour school days

  17. Readiness for Implementation • Appreciate the stages of adopting something new • Exploration, Installation, Partial Implementation, Full Implementation, Innovation, Sustainability • Make sure the elements for implementation are in place: • Team (administrator, core representatives) • Commitment to vision, and training time • Coaching support

  18. Readiness for Implementation • Invest in the systems needed to support high fidelity implementation • Team process • Data collection, summary and use • Build whole-school systems before more intense support systems. • Use data regularly to determine (a) fidelity and (b) impact • Team Implementation Checklist (TIC) to self-assess and action plan every two months • Office discipline referral data (weekly, monthly)

  19. WHAT IS SWPBIS • Logic • Core Features

  20. Logic for School-wide PBIS • Schools face a set of difficult challenges today • Multiple expectations (Academic accomplishment, Social competence, Safety) • Students arrive at school with widely differing understandings of what is socially acceptable. • Traditional “get tough” and “zero tolerance” approaches are insufficient. • Individual student interventions • Effective, but can’t meet need • School-wide discipline systems • Establish a social culture within which both social and academic success is more likely

  21. Context • Problem behavior continues to be the primary reason why individuals in our society are excluded from school, home, recreation, community, and work.

  22. Insubordination, noncompliance, defiance, late to class, nonattendance, truancy, fighting, aggression, inappropriate language, social withdrawal, excessive crying, stealing, vandalism, property destruction, tobacco, drugs, alcohol, unresponsive, not following directions, inappropriate use of school materials, weapons, harassment 1, harassment 2, harassment 3, unprepared to learn, parking lot violation, irresponsible, trespassing, disrespectful, disrupting teaching, uncooperative, violent behavior, disruptive, verbal abuse, physical abuse, dress code, other, etc., etc., etc. Vary in intensity Exist in every school, home and community context Place individuals at risk physically, emotionally, academically and socially Are expensive: For society, schools, classrooms, students, families Problem Behaviors

  23. The challenge of too many initiatives Wraparound Early Intervention Literacy Equity Positive Behavior Support Family Support Math Response to Intervention

  24. Alignment for Systems change Response to Intervention/Prevention Primary Prevention Universal Screening Multi-tiered Support Early Intervention Progress Monitoring Systems to support practices Early Intervention Literacy Wraparound ALIGNMENT Math Family Support Behavior Support Student Outcomes © Dean Fixsen, Karen Blase, Robert Horner, George Sugai, 2008

  25. What is School-wide Positive Behavior Intervention and Support? • School-wide PBIS is: • A framework for establishing the social culture and behavioral supports needed for a school to be an effective learning environment (academic and behavior) for all students. • Evidence-based features of SWPBIS • Prevention • Define and teach positive social expectations • Acknowledge positive behavior • Arrange consistent consequences for problem behavior • On-going collection and use of data for decision-making • Continuum of intensive, individual intervention supports. • Implementation of the systems that support effective practices

  26. The social culture of a school matters. A continuum of supports that begins with the whole school and extends to intensive, wraparound support for individual students and their families. Effective practices with the systems needed for high fidelity and sustainability Multiple tiers of intensity School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS)

  27. Establishing a Social Culture Common Language MEMBERSHIP Common Experience Common Vision/Values

  28. School-wide PBS • Establishing additional supports for students with more intense needs

  29. Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior SCHOOL-WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students 27

  30. Math Remember that the multiple tiers of support refer to our SUPPORT not Students. Avoid creating a new disability labeling system. Behavior Health Reading

  31. ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS • TERTIARY PREVENTION • Function-based support • Wraparound • Person-centered planning • Check and Connect • TERTIARY PREVENTION ~5% ~15% • SECONDARY PREVENTION • Check in/ Check out • Targeted social skills instruction • Anger Management • Social skills club • First Step to Success • SECONDARY PREVENTION • PRIMARY PREVENTION • Teach SW expectations • Consistent Consequences • Positive reinforcement • Classroom Systems • Parent engagement • Bully Prevention • PRIMARY PREVENTION ~80% of Students

  32. Supporting Social Competence, Academic Achievement and Safety School-wide PBIS OUTCOMES Supporting Student Behavior Supporting Decision Making PRACTICES DATA SYSTEMS Supporting Staff Behavior

  33. Create Effective Learning Environments • Predictable • Consistent • Positive • Safe

  34. Action: Rate your school culture1. Use a student perspective2. Use a staff perspective

  35. Define School-wide Expectationsfor Social Behavior • Identify 3-5 Expectations • Short statements • Positive Statements (what to do, not what to avoid doing) • Memorable • Examples: • Be Respectful, Be Responsible, Be Safe, Be Kind, Be a Friend, Be-there-be-ready, Hands and feet to self, Respect self, others, property, Do your best, Follow directions of adults

  36. Activity: Behavioral Expectations • Define your school-wide expectations • 3-5, Positively stated • Core social values • Terms that will be comfortable for students, families, staff • How will you make the expectations memorable?

  37. Teach Behavioral Expectations • Transform broad school-wide Expectations into specific, observable behaviors. • Use the Expectations by Settings Matrix • Teach in the actual settings where behaviors are to occur • Teach (a) the words, and (b) the actions. • Teach “When” as well as “How” to behave • Build a social culture that is predictable, and focused on student success.

  38. Nolan

  39. Curriculum Matrix

  40. Activity: Teaching Matrix • List your expectations and your locations on the Teaching matrix • Select one location in the school • Define how you would teach the expectations in that location. • Present “words”…expectations • Present rationale, and definitional rule • Present positive examples • Present negative (non) examples • Provide an activity in which all students practice

  41. School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~15% ~80% of Students

  42. Implications for Bully Prevention • Build on school-wide social culture • Do not add a NEW program to what you already do • All students know what “respect” means • Avoid deviancy training: (do NOT teach bullying) • Teach a school-wide signal for “stop” • Teach all students what to do if asked to “stop”

  43. Teach a Three-Step Skill that can be used in all places at all times. Keep it simple If you encounter behavior that is NOT respectful Stop -------- Walk -------- Talk Say and Show “STOP” Walk Away • Talk to an Adult

  44. 1.88 .88 3.14 Baseline Acquisition Full BP-PBS Implementation Rob School 1 Number of Incidents of Bullying Behavior Bruce Cindy School 2 Scott Anne School 3 Ken 72% School Days

  45. 19% decrease 28% increase BP-PBS, Scott Ross

  46. 22% decrease 21% increase BP-PBS, Scott Ross

  47. Key Messages • Bully prevention starts by establishing a positive school-wide social culture. • Bully prevention involves empowering students to withhold rewards for bullying. • Add the smallest changes that generate the largest effects • Always collect data on both fidelity and impact.

  48. Why Embed Expectations into Curriculum? • Behavior curriculum does not have to be separate • Helps to eliminate time crunches • Provides a rationale for student- helps students to see how the expectations fit into everyday life • Meets best practices approach • Hands on activities • Meets all learning styles (oral, visual, kinesthetic) • Higher order learning activates (synthesize, analyze, etc.)