Fervent winter 1946-1947 caused an economical catastrophe in Europe • Economic hardship in Western Europe after the war and electoral successes of the communist parties in Italy and France deeply worried political leaders in the West.
Tension also rose over the development in Eastern Europe • Harassment, terror and rigged elections produced communist single-party rule in countries like Bulgaria, Romania, Poland and Hungary in 1946-1947.
From a US point of view there was a very problematic development in Asia: • In China, the Civil War had restarted • In Vietnam, a full-scale war between the French and Vietnamese Communists and Nationalists, Vietminh, started in 1946-the Indochina War.
It was a clear violation of the Declaration of Liberated Europe • Western leaders saw the development in Eastern Europe as a first step in taking control of the countries in the West. • An attempt to put nuclear weapons under UN control, the Baruch Plan, was vetoed by the USSR. • The plan would not only prevent the Russians from continuing to develop their own nuclear weapons, it would also bring UN inspectors to the USSR.
In 1946, we can see signs of a changing attitude in the West that would progressively lead to the introduction of the Truman Doctrine in 1947: • In February George Kennan, a diplomat at the US Embassy in Moscow, wrote his Long Telegram. It was a report written for the State Department and it was widely circulated within US bureaucracy and provided the intellectual basis for the 'doctrine of containment'. • A public version of the Long Telegram was published in a famous article in Foreign Affairs in July 1947, called 'the X article'.
8000 word prophecy • Kennan stated that no long-term co-operation was possible with the Soviet regime and that communism must be contained within its present borders. • The USSR was aggressive, expansionist and hostile and described by Kennan as "World Communism is like malignant parasite which feeds only on diseased tissue.”
Cause Kennan's Long Telegram –Effect the Truman Doctrine • Kennan's Long Telegram influenced Washington to a major extent and is a very important background factor behind the policy of 'containment' and the Truman Doctrine issued in 1947. • It is, however, important to notice that Kennan himself questioned Truman's emphasis on military containment. • In his memoirs he writes that he "considered containment as primarily political and economic," according to Crockatt”.
InMarch, the British ex-premier Winston Churchill gave his Iron Curtain Speech at Fulton in the US. • "From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere."
The speech appealed for a renewal of the Anglo-American alliance as a means of deterring Soviet expansionism. Churchill continued his speech: • If the population of the English-speaking Commonwealth be added to that of the United States, with all that such cooperation implies in the air, on the sea, all over the globe, and in science and in industry, and in moral force .... there will be an overwhelming assurance of security. »
Iron Curtain Speech resulted possibly in satelization of Europe • Revisionist historians argue that it was now that Stalin definitely decided to 'satellite' Eastern Europe. He saw it as a major threat to Soviet security and answered in a speech: • "Mr. Churchill begins to set war loose, also by a racial theory, maintaining that only nations speaking the English language are fully valuable nations, called upon to decide the destiny of the entire world.
Churchill's speech, which must be today described as 'famous', was initially met with suspicion in the US. • US opinion was not yet prepared to regard the USSR as an implacable( pitiless ) enemy and many Americans suspected that Churchill simply tried to get US assistance to maintain the power of the British Empire worldwide. • At the time Britain suffered from an economic crisis and problems in India, Greece and Palestine. • It is also clear that the speech did have a major impact on US opinion and contributed to the new policy in 1947.
In September, the US Secretary of State, Byrnes, announced in his Stuttgart Speech that the US • supported a”revival of Germany politically and economically. » • The German people ... should now be given the primary responsibility for the running of their own affairs."
It was clear that Germany constituted a major problem to the occupation forces. • In May the US had suspended reparation deliveries from their zone to the Russians, which was seen as a violation of the Potsdam agreement. • Both France and the USSR had good reasons to fear a German recovery. • The Allied Control Council, which had been set up to govern Germany, never worked due to the veto power of each occupational force. • In 1946, it was apparent that the US and Britain had realised that a recovery of Europe was dependent on a German recovery.
Europe will recover if Germany does as per UK and US • It was against this background that Byrnes made his speech in September. • In 1946, Germany was divided into two hostile camps and each side now started to encourage the revival of German political parties.
On 1 January 1947, the British and the US zones were merged into one zone, Bizonia • By now it was possible to foresee that there would be two German states in the future. • It was something that Stalin had never realised during the war, accepting West Berlin as a capitalist island in the Eastern zone.
In 1947, the US adopted a policy of containment, influenced by George Kennan. • The aim was to prevent the spread of communism beyond its present borders, i.e., to contain it within its existing borders. • The Americans calculated that they were the strongest country in the world both economically and militarily. Atomic Monopoly too • By adopting a more active role, they would not only be able to prevent a further expansion of communism, they would also strengthen the 'free world'.
Byrnes is replaced by general Marshall • Members of the Truman administration, who still believed in some kind of dialogue with the Russians, were eased out of office. • One important change was that Byrnes was replaced as Secretary of State (foreign minister) by general George Marshall.
UK could no loner provide financial aid to Greece and Turkey • The immediate reason for the Truman Doctrine was that in February Britain informed the US that they could no longer support Greece and Turkey economically. • Britain had traditionally supported allies in the Eastern Mediterranean against Russian expansion. • In 1946, there was a civil war in Greece where the government was fighting a communist-led insurgency.
Dardanelles and Bosporus ( Stalin is nervous about US presence so close to him ) • Stalin had announced that he wanted a revision of a treaty from 1936 that had put the Straits of Constantinople (Istanbul) under Turkish control. • He wanted international control of this important waterway and delivered a strong note demanding this in the summer of 1946.
Truman must convince the isolationist Congress • Truman knew that in order to win over a US Congress dominated by Republicans, his arguments had to be convincing: "At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life, " Truman argued. • Some historians claim that he exaggerated the threat from communism when he delivered his speech to the Congress. • It is clear that it was a historic moment.
Metamorphosis : Inertia to Action • The US role of isolationism towards world politics was now, definitely, going to be replaced by an active role. • This is the most important turning point in US foreign policy in the 20th century
Truman is appealing to the Congress to support the free peoples of the world • Initially, his request for money was only intended for Greece and Turkey but it was soon extended globally and would lead to armed conflicts in both Korea and Vietnam. • Truman said: "One way of life is based upon the will of the majority .... The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority. It relies upon terror and oppression ... it must be the policy of the United States to support peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures."
Outside pressures • 'Outside pressures' was of course Moscow, even though Stalin had remained neutral in the civil war in Greece. • The Congress granted Truman $250 million to Greece and an additional $150 million to Turkey. • Using this help for military needs the communist insurgents were eventually defeated.
Juxtaposition :must- be anti-communist but not necessarily democratic • It was clear that the Turkish government was far from democratic but there would be many more examples in the future where it was more important to be anti-communist than democratic. • The US also reorganised its administration. • In the National Security Act (NSC) from 1947, the War and Navy Department were merged into a new National Defense Department and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was created. – WOW justification to stick your nose with coveted political operations
In June of the same year the Secretary of State George Marshall announced his Marshall Plan. • This massive economic help for European reconstruction was initially offered to most European countries, even the communist states. • But it was soon rejected by the USSR and her satellites. • From a Russian point of view, this type of new economic imperialism and dependence had to be turned down. • Marshall however stated in his speech: "Our policy is directed not against any county or doctrine, but against hunger; poverty, desperation and chaos. "
The reasons for this 'act of humanity' have been widely discussed by historians. There were probably several reasons: • Marshall had been in Europe in early 1947 and was appalled at the economic and social situation in Europe. • Help was definitely needed. • Political reasons: Hunger and poverty were a perfect breeding ground for communism. • The French Communist Party belonged to the coalition government in the country and the Italian Communist Party was also very strong.
There was a risk that some Western democracies would turn to communism. • That Western Europe should be 'lost to communism' was unacceptable. • The Marshall Plan would bind the states in Europe to the US, not just only economically but also politically. • An economic slump or Western Europe turning to communism would deprive the Americans of one important economic market. • The US would benefit from a prosperous Europe.
Truman was able to pass the Marshall Plan through Congress in 1948. • He was assisted by a communist takeover in Czechoslovakia the same year . • The effect of the Marshall Plan is normally considered as successful and led to massive industrial growth with a GNP growth in Europe of around 15-25% annually. Financial stability returned. • Politically the development in 1947 was a major turning point. • It was now clear that the US would play an active world role and it is hardly surprising that Stalin now tightened his grip in Eastern Europe.
Comintern – Cominform ( control politically), Comecon (control economically ) • The successor of Comintern, the international communist organisation, was formed in 194 7 and renamed as Cominform. • The aim was to control and organise communist activities outside the USSR. • Non-Communists were expelled from the Hungarian government and developments in both Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia in 1948 are hardly surprising.
The Soviet deputy foreign minister Andrei Vishinski said in a speech in the UN in September 1947: • "The so-called Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan are particularly glaring examples of the manner in which the principles of the United Nations are violated ... .It is becoming more and more evident to everyone that the implementation of the Marshall plan will mean placing European countries under the economic and political control of the United States and the direct interference by the latter in the internal affairs of these countries."
1948: Rising Tension • The establishment of communist rule in Eastern Europe followed a general pattern. • The Red Army had liberated the countries from Nazi control and immediately introduced a policy of denazification.
Salami Tactics • Communists who had been educated in the USSR and were loyal to Stalin soon took leading positions within their national parties. • Left-wing parties were pressured by the Communists to join them in 'Popular Fronts' and they soon dominated national provisional governments by controlling key posts such as Ministers of Justice, Interior (controlling the police)
To rig the elections … • By controlling the judicial and repressive systems of the state, the Communists were able to rig elections, i.e., to ensure communist victories. • Political opponents were harassed or simply made to disappear. • Between September 1947 and February 1948 all non-Communists were purged from the governments in Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary.
Sovietisation • Once the political system was controlled, a Sovietisation of other aspects of life like economy, culture, land distribution and media could proceed. Formally these satellites retained their full independence but they were controlled by the USSR. • There were two major exceptions in Eastern Europe: Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia.
There are many examples from Eastern Europe showing this. • In Poland, the Peasant Party refused to join the Democratic Front which was requested by the Communists. • The party was subjected to harassment and terror and elections in 1947 were manipulated. • The communist controlled 'electoral bloc' got more than 90% support in the elections. • In Hungary, the leader of the Smallholders party Bela Kovacs, and other representatives from his party, were arrested by Soviet troops in 1947.
Salami Tactics • In Romania the Communists and their allies got 372 out of 414 seats in the elections in 1946. The results had been falsified. • In Bulgaria, the Fatherland Front secured 90% of the votes at elections in 1945 and used terror and coercion against the political opposition.
Yugoslavia • Yugoslavia had been liberated from Nazi control by Yugoslav partisans under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito-and not by the Russian Red Army. • After the war Stalin tried to impose his plans for economic development in Yugoslavia, i.e., to concentrate on heavy industry.
Communist Maverick • Tito resisted this policy and took his own initiatives to form a custom union with Bulgaria and Hungary. • Stalin could not allow this form of 'national communism' and withdrew his economic and military advisers from Yugoslavia. • In June 1948, Yugoslavia was expelled from Cominform, the international communist organisation, accused of 'bourgeois nationalism'.
Yugoslavia was ostracized –pariah state • The Eastern Bloc now announced an economic blockade and broke off diplomatic relations. • Yugoslavia was now expelled from the Eastern Bloc, but Tito and his regime had considerable national support. • It was also important that they didn't share a border with the USSR.
US responds to Tito’s dissidence • The US offered considerable financial assistance. • The outcome of this crisis led to the creation of a nonaligned, non-Stalinist, communist state. • But it also led to a major purge of 'national communists' in Russian satellite states. • The Yugoslav example should not be copied.
Czechoslovakia • Czechoslovakia had been liberated from Nazi occupation by the Red Army. • But there was much stronger support for communism in Czechoslovakia compared to other satellites due to 'the ghost of Munich'. • The betrayal by the Western democracies in 1938 had not been forgotten.
Coalition Government • Communists secured 38% support in free elections in 1946 and joined a coalition with non-communist parties. • In 1947, the country suffered from an economic crisis and the Communist Party feared that this would affect its chances at the elections in 1948. • After disputes within the government regarding nationalisation of industries and land reform, non-communist ministers resigned.
In the West and in the US, this confirmed the view of the 'hardliners'. The coup in Czechoslovakia helped the US government to pass the Marshall Plan through Congress. • The Prime Minister formed a new National Front government with only Communists and reliable supporters. • When elections eventually took place, the Communists won 237 of 300 seats in parliament and soon all other parties were dissolved. • The only country in the Eastern Bloc with a genuine multi-party system had now been transformed to a communist single-party state