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Chapter 17 The Disintegration of Sudan

Chapter 17 The Disintegration of Sudan

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Chapter 17 The Disintegration of Sudan

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  1. Chapter 17The Disintegration of Sudan Global Issue 6

  2. Imperialist Influence in Africa • The Europeans colonized Africa in the nineteenth century • Superior technology allowed for easy takeover, one example is General Kitchener against Sudanese fighters at Omdurman in 1898 • Many of these colonized countries have emulated the violent ways of the imperialists • Sudan is one such example of an African country set in a way of war and violence

  3. Violence in Sudan • Civil wars in all but ten years since the countries independence in 1956 • Sparked by the Muslim-led government’s imposition of Islamic law in the late 1980’s rebels in the south have fought government forces for nearly twenty years • War ended in 2005 with near 2 million casualties • In 2010, the south voted to leave Sudan, forming South Sudan, and becoming the 193rd member of the UN in 2011

  4. Geography of Sudan • Before the split to Sudan and South Sudan in 2011, Sudan had the largest land area in Africa and was one of the most ethnically diverse countries in Africa • 70% of the country was Arab and Sunni Muslm • The north end of Sudan is mostly desert while the south is mostly plain

  5. Sudanese Economics • Sudan produces 325,000 barrels of crude oil a day and is 41st in the world in oil exports • 60% of the Sudanese government’s revenue comes from oil, yet the country is still very poor • In 2010, per capita income of $2,300 • About 70-80% of oil is in the south • 80% of Sudanese still engaged in agriculture • 40% live below the poverty line • Literacy rate of 61.1% • Life expectancy of 55.4 years

  6. Conflict in Darfur • Darfur is a western province of Sudan • By the time Sudan gained independence in 1956, Darfur was one of the poorest and least-developed areas of the country • The government continued the negligence of Darfur after gaining independence • About 200,000 people died in a famine in 1984 • Unrest grew in the reason due to poor conditions • Local militias, or the janjaweed, backed by the Sudanese government, killed many members of the Masaliti tribe • Brutal war tactics by the militias, rape was not uncommon before murder

  7. A Call For Peace • In 2007, a peacekeeping force named the African Union (AU) was sent to Darfur but could not control the situation • The Sudanese government was pressured to control the situation since they allowed the janjaweed free reign to fix the original conflict • The United Nations and United States have started to get involved in peacekeeping efforts but to no avail yet