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High Definition Video: Workflow from Cameras to CODECs APAN Fall Meeting Xi’an, China Aug 2007 PowerPoint Presentation
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High Definition Video: Workflow from Cameras to CODECs APAN Fall Meeting Xi’an, China Aug 2007

High Definition Video: Workflow from Cameras to CODECs APAN Fall Meeting Xi’an, China Aug 2007

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High Definition Video: Workflow from Cameras to CODECs APAN Fall Meeting Xi’an, China Aug 2007

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  1. High Definition Video: Workflow from Cameras to CODECs APAN Fall Meeting Xi’an, China Aug 2007 Michael Wellings Director, Engineering Vice Chair, APAN HD WG THINK FORWARD.THINK RESEARCHCHANNEL.

  2. Topics of Discussion • ResearchChannel Background • Recent and future demonstrations • Advanced Systems • iHDTV™ Open Source Project • HD Video Workflow Discussion

  3. ResearchChannel Background

  4. ResearchChannel Programs • More than 3,200 hours of programming in theVideo on Demand library • 1,100 new programs addedthis year

  5. Duke University George Mason University Indiana University, School of Informatics Johns Hopkins University Massachusetts Institute of Technology National University of Singapore New York University Pennsylvania State University Rice University Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Stanford University Medical Center Texas A&M University Tulane University, A.B. Freeman School of Business ResearchChannel:: Participants Advanced Network Forum AJA Video Systems Inc. Australia's Academic Research Network (AARNet) Fujinon Howard Hughes Medical Institute IBM Corporation Intel Corporation Internet2 Johnson & Johnson Library of Congress Microsoft Research National Academies National Academy of Engineering Universidad de Puerto Rico Universidade de São Paulo University of Alaska - Fairbanks University of Chicago University of Hawaii University of Maryland - College Park University of Pennsylvania University of Southern California University of Virginia University of Washington University of Wisconsin-Madison Virginia Tech Yale University National Academy of Sciences National Institute of Nursing Research National Institute of Standards and Technology National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine National Science Foundation Pacific Northwest Gigapop Poznań Supercomputing and Networking Center R1edu.org SURFnet Vulcan Northwest, Inc. Wisconsin Public Television

  6. American Meteorological Association Arizona State University California State University,Monterey Bay Indiana University Loma Linda University Pacific Northwest National Laboratory University of Kentucky University of Michigan Isilon Systems ResearchChannel: New Participants

  7. U.S. Television Distribution DISH Network satellite system 12 million homes Cable systems 12.9 million homes

  8. Google Video

  9. August 1999First-Ever Streaming of High-Definition Television over the Internet November 1999Network Sets Record Speed April 2000First Live HDTV Over Internet Newscast July 2004First Transmission of Full Bandwidth HD Video Between Computers September 2005First-Ever Live HD Images from Seafloor to Land Available as IP-Based Feed November 2005Interactive Multipoint HD Videoconference Demonstrated November 2006Partner in World-wide testing of ConferenceXP Technology Milestones

  10. Technology :: Leading the Way

  11. Continuous Ocean Observing

  12. Consortia Partnerships

  13. Recent and Future Demonstrations

  14. Recent Demonstrations • Sept 2005 - iGrid San Diego • iHDTV - USA118: Global N-Way Uncompressed Interactive Conferencing • Underwater research using HD from SS Thompson – USA119: 20,000 Terabits Under the Sea • Nov 2005 - SC05 Seattle • iHDTV /HD Storage, capture and editing using SRB (Storage Resource Broker)

  15. Recent Demonstrations • Nov 2006 SC06 Tampa • iHD1500 system • Dec 2006 Internet2 Fall Member Meeting Chicago • iHD1500 system • HD CoDecs compared • HD Camera hands-on

  16. Future Demonstrations • ResearchChannel Annual Meeting Oct07 • Cinegrid / GLIF Sept07 • Internet 2 Fall Member Meeting Oct07 • SC07 Reno Nov07 • APAN 08 Hawaii Jan08

  17. Advanced Delivery Methods and Services

  18. ResearchChannel Advanced on-line Services • ResearchChannel-HD • Currently VC-1 SMPTE 421M • AVC (h.264, MPEG-4 Part-10) coming soon • Unicast: • http://media-wm-hd.cac.washington.edu/ResearchChannel-HDVideo • Multicast: • http://researchchannel.org/multicast/ResearchChannel-HDVideo.nsc • Solicitation for HD content

  19. ResearchChannel Advanced on-line Services • ResearchChannel satellite feed on the network • 233.0.73.29 MPEG2@ 3.2mbps • Live 1080i HD video of Mt Rainier • 233.0.73.26 MPEG2 MP@HL @ 20mbps • Live 720p HD video of Mt Rainier http://www.researchchannel.org/tech/desktopclients.asp • HD VOD 720p WMV-HD http://www.researchchannel.org/visions05/hdpresentation.asp • HD VOD 1080i MPEG2 ML@HL http://www.researchchannel.org/tech/desktophdsamples.asp • KEXP-FM Audio-on-demand; uncompressed audio webcasting http://www.kexp.org

  20. ResearchChannel Advanced on-line Services • Developing VOD archive for oceanographic HD video • Partnership with Isilon – to be demonstrated at SC07 Reno • KEXP-FM on-line services have a world-wide audience that equals Seattle broadcast listener numbers

  21. ResearchChannel Advanced on-line Services Visions ’05 - Emmy Award Nominee First-ever live HD 1080i video/IP streamed around the world • SMPTE 292M multicast and unicast @ 1.5gbps • MPEG 2 MP@HL multicast • WMV-HD multicast and unicast

  22. ResearchChannel Advanced on-line Services • Seattle Science Foundation Project – testbed for new Medical technology with HD video archiving – seattlesciencefoundation.org • WWAMI: collaborative medical education via Advanced video technology • RC HD Lab on-line • Advanced venue on UW campus commissioned • Successful launch of Experimental Internet ResearchChannel-HD

  23. iHDTV Open Source Project

  24. iHDTV™ Software Suite • iHDTV Explained • iHD1500 • iHD270 • HD to the Desktop • WindowsXP-based application suite • Released as Open Source • Account created on SourceForge • iHD_Trusted_Partners_Group formed to direct software development

  25. iHDTV™ Development / Deployment • SourceForge load • SVN Tree transferred • iHDTV_trusted_partners formed – 47 members • 4 Core developers @ (UW / U-Mich / U-Wisconsin) • Executive team to guide development will meet monthly • Deploy globally • N-way implementation this summer with 6 nodes

  26. iHDTV™ iHD270 • iHD270 (first introduced aug 99) • Sony HDCamtm compression • SDTI data format 270mbps • AJA Xena I/O • Requires: • AJA Xena-HD capture cards • Dual Processor P4 • Windows XP • Sony HDCam Hardware encoder/decoder • Gige network connection

  27. iHDTV™ iHD270 • 1920x1080 60i 8bit 4:2:2 • Sony HDCam source material • 995mbps active lines, 1188mbps total

  28. iHDTV™ iHD1500 • iHD1500 • Uncompressed SMPTE 292M 4:2:2 • Data rate total approx 1.5 gbps • Requires: • Uncompressed HD capture cards • PCI Express platforms • Windows XP • 2 x gige or 1x10gige network connection • Jumbo frame transport and routing • Specs: http://zzz.cac.washington.edu/ihdtv_wiki/index.php/Main_Page

  29. iHDTV™ iHD1500 Latency about 4 frames end to end plus network delay • 4 frames=133ms or ~ 1/7 sec

  30. iHDTV™ iHD1500 • iHD1500 Enhancements: • New i/o board options • GUI front end • Self-installing package • Uncompressed HD Server: • Single link • Dual link • Quad link • HD Screen rendering for OptIPortal integration • NTT i-VISTO interoperability

  31. High Definition Workflow A Report “in progress…”

  32. HD – a Background

  33. Sample Rates • NTSC 4:2:2 • Y, Pb, Pr color matrix • 4x3.38 (compromise rate from 3.58MHz) = 15.5MHz • Color difference channels @ 6.75MHz • HD 4:2:2 (really 22:11:11) • Y, Pb, Pr color matrix • 22x3.38 = 74.25MHz • Color difference channels @ 37.125MHz • 10 bit – 1024 gradations • 8 bit – 256 gradations

  34. Sample Rates • 4:2:2 • Chroma sampled at ½ rate of Luma • 4:1:1 • Chroma sampled at ¼ rate of Luma • 4:2:0 • Chroma sampled at ½ rate of Luma on every other line of each field

  35. Sample / Bit Rates • Broadcast • 4:2:0 MPEG-2 TS 19.2mbps • DVD • 4:2:0 MPEG-2 PS VBR • HD DVD/Blu-Ray • 4:2:0 VC-1 @ 8mbps • 4:2:0 AVC @ 8mbps

  36. HD Resolutions • 720p 60Hz – SMPTE 274M • 1280x720 24p • 1280x720 30p • 1280x720 60p • 1080i/p 60Hz – SMPTE 296M • 1920x1080 24p • 1920x1080 30p • 1920x1080 60i • 1920x1080 60p

  37. HD Bitrates – Uncompressed 720p 10- bit 4:2:2 • 720p 60Hz - SMPTE 296M • 1280x720 30p • 742mbps • 30MHz Y, 15MHz Chroma • 1280x720 60p • 1485mbps • 30MHz Y, 15MHz Chroma

  38. Progressive / Interlaced • 1080/60i and 1080/30p occupy the same datarate – 1.485gbps • Interlaced pictures produce spacial errors associated with the time difference in motion between fields • This can create a smoothing effect which is easier on the eye during fast motion • High Framerate progressive (60 frame or greater) is best

  39. HD Bitrates – Uncompressed 10801/p 10- bit 4:2:2 • 1080i/p 60Hz – SMPTE 274M • 1920x1080 30p • 1485mbps • 30MHz Y, 15MHz Chroma • 1920x1080 60i • 1485mbps • 30MHz Y, 15MHz Chroma • 1920x1080 60p • 2970mbps • 60MHz Y, 30MHz Chroma

  40. Imaging chips • Solid State Camera front end (tube cameras came first!) • CCD = Charge Coupled Device • CMOS = Complementary metal oxide semiconductor

  41. Imaging chips CCDs collect charge at each element, and that charge is read out sequentially Charge to Voltage conversion takes place off-chip A>D takes place off chip Digital level = luminance level These are monochrome sensors!

  42. Imaging chips CMOS chips collect charge at each element Charge to Voltage and A>D functions take place on-chip CMOS imagers exhibit more noise than CCDs, and tend not to be used in higher end cameras

  43. Single chip vs 3 chip • CCDs gather charge according to the amount of light impinging on the element • This charge is converted to a voltage representing light level • This light level does not specifically contain color information • Color reference is obtained through the use of filtering in front of the image sensor

  44. Bayer Filter on-chip • Bayer Filter Diagram • 4:2:2 sampling • Green sampled at 2x Red and Blue • Single chip color solution

  45. Color Processing • 3 chip • RGB output from image processing • Digital sampling and CODECS operate on component video – Y, Pb, Pr (Y’,Cb’,Cr’) • Y = Luma channel • Pb= subsampled blue matrix • Pr= Subsampled red matrix

  46. NAB 2007

  47. HD Cameras • SONY XDCam ex • 3 chip ½” imager (details unknown) • MPEG-2 long GOP • 30-50mbps • Writes to Express Flash memory cards • 120 min record time • Target price $8000

  48. HD Cameras • Grass Valley/Thomson Infinity • 3 chip CMOS • 2.4 million pixels each • Ships with DV25 and JPEG2000 codecs • MPEG2 optional • Writes at up to 100mbps to IOMega REVPro drives • Target price $26K without lens • Ships in August 07

  49. New HD Cameras at NAB 07 • SONY XDCam HD • Long GOP MPEG-2 • Writes to dual-layer BluRay Pro disk • Up to 50mbps • 2/3” 3 chip 2million+ pixel • ships in 1st QTR 08 • Target price less than $30K without lens

  50. New HD Cameras at NAB 07