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Chapter 22: Descent with Modification

Chapter 22: Descent with Modification

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Chapter 22: Descent with Modification

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  1. Chapter 22: Descent with Modification

  2. Theory of Evolution • Change through time • Descent with modification • Genetic changes of a population through time • Explains Biodiversity • Variety of life forms, with adaptations to specific environments • Form=Function • Explains relationship between living organisms • How organisms are related by descent from common ancestors

  3. Theory of Evolution • Pattern of Evolution • Observations from natural world • Collected from variety of fields • Biology, geology, physics, chemistry • Process of Evolution • Mechanisms causing change • Unifying theory of biology • Explains and connects observations from natural world

  4. Types of Evolution • Microevolution= change in the gene pool of a population over many generations • 4 Methods of Microevolution • Mutations • May be deleterious or neutral • Natural Selection • Process in which individuals with favorable inherited traits are more likely to survive and reproduce • Genetic Drift= chance events cause genetic changes from one population to the next • Gene Flow= individuals or gametes move to a different population

  5. Natural Selection and Mutation

  6. Classification of Species • Before 1700s, major belief was organisms did not change through time but were “perfect” and “permanent” • Greek philosopher Aristotle= arranged species on a scalanaturae • Simple to complex • Viewed species as fixed, non-changing • 1700s: Carolus Linnaeus= founder of taxonomy • Branch of biology concerned with classifying organisms • Developed the binomial format for naming species • Homo sapiens

  7. Classification of Species • In the mid-1700s, studies of fossils found evidence of life-forms different from those currently living • Early 1800s, French naturalist Jean Baptiste Lamarck explained the differences in fossil records by proposing organisms evolved through time

  8. Fossil Record • Primarily based on imprints or remains left in sedimentary rock • Relative ages of fossils can be determined based on their position in rock layers • Radiometric dating allows for more precise aging of fossils • Whole organisms can also be preserved in mediums preventing decomposition • Insects in resin • Wooly mammoth frozen in ice • Documents change of organisms through time • Documents large number of extinct species

  9. Classification of Species • Lamarck proposed: • Organisms could change its traits by using or not using certain body parts • These changes could be passed to offspring • Not supported by genetics

  10. Charles Darwin • Born in 1809 • Life-long naturalist • After college, joined the crew of the HMS Beagle to explore and map parts of the South American coastline • Collected specimens of South American plants and animals HMS Beagle in port

  11. Charles Darwin: Voyage of HMS Beagle Great Britain EUROPE NORTH AMERICA ATLANTIC OCEAN The Galápagos Islands AFRICA Equator Malay Archipelago SOUTH AMERICA PACIFIC OCEAN Brazil Chile AUSTRALIA PACIFIC OCEAN Andes Mtns. Cape of Good Hope Argentina Tasmania Cape Horn New Zealand

  12. Figure 22.5c The Galápagos Islands PACIFIC OCEAN Pinta Genovesa Marchena Equator Santiago Daphne Islands Pinzón Fernandina Isabela Santa Cruz Santa Fe San Cristobal 0 20 40 Florenza Española Kilometers

  13. Charles Darwin • During voyage, made 2 important observations: • Animals and plants had characteristics specific to the environment they inhabited • Organisms on islands were similar but different from organisms on mainland • Darwin perceived adaptation to the environment and the origin of new species as closely related processes

  14. Figure 22.6 (b) Insect-eater (a) Cactus-eater (c) Seed-eater

  15. Charles Darwin

  16. Charles Darwin • 1844: wrote an essay on natural selection as the mechanism of descent with modification • Did not introduce his theory publicly • 1858: Received manuscript from Alfred Russell Wallace • Developed a theory of natural selection similar to Darwin’s • Darwin quickly finished The Origin of Species and published it the next year

  17. Charles Darwin • 1859: The Origin of Species was published • Provided evidence of “descent with modification” • Current species came from a succession of ancestors • As descendants spread into new habitats, modifications (adaptations) accumulated as a result of new environmental factors • Resulted in new species and increased diversity • Proposed mechanism for evolution • Natural selection

  18. Charles Darwin • In the Darwinian view, the history of life is like a tree with branches representing life’s diversity • Darwin’s theory meshed well with the hierarchy of Linnaeus

  19. Hyracoidea (Hyraxes) Figure 22.8 Sirenia (Manatees and relatives) †Moeritherium †Barytherium †Deinotherium †Mammut †Platybelodon †Stegodon †Mammuthus Elephas maximus (Asia) Loxodonta africana (Africa) Loxodonta cyclotis (Africa) 60 34 24 5.5 2 104 0 Years ago Millions of years ago

  20. Artificial Selection • Darwin noted that humans have modified other species by selecting and breeding individuals with desired traits • Artificial selection

  21. Figure 22.9 Cabbage Selection for apical (tip) bud Brussels sprouts Selection for axillary (side) buds Broccoli Selection for flowers and stems Selection for stems Selection for leaves Kale Kohlrabi Wild mustard

  22. Darwin drew two inferences from two observations • Observation #1: Members of a population often vary in their inherited traits • Inference #1: Individuals whose inherited traits give them a higher probability of surviving and reproducing in a given environment tend to leave more offspring than other individuals

  23. Darwin drew two inferences from two observations • Observation #2: All species can produce more offspring than the environment can support, and many of these offspring fail to survive and reproduce • Inference #2: This unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce will lead to the accumulation of favorable traits in the population over generations

  24. Natural Selection • Unequal reproduction is the essential part of natural selection • Individuals with characteristics allowing them to be better at… • getting food • escaping predators • tolerating environment • attracting mates • …will survive longer and potentially produce more offspring with the adaptive characteristic

  25. Natural Selection • Explains the match between organisms and their environment…

  26. 3 Key Points to Evolution by Natural Selection • Individuals do not evolve, populations evolve • Evolution occurs as adaptations accumulate in populations over several generations • Natural selection only works on heritable traits with variation in the population • Acquired traits are not passed to offspring • Evolution is not working towards a specific goal or “perfect” organisms • Natural selection results from an organism interacting with a specific environment • Characteristics favorable in one environment may not be favorable in another

  27. Natural Selection: Summary • Individuals with certain heritable characteristics survive and reproduce at a higher rate than other individuals • Natural selection increases the adaptation of organisms to their environment over time • If an environment changes over time, natural selection may result in adaptation to these new conditions and may give rise to new species

  28. Evidence of Natural Selection: Response to Introduced Plant Species • Soapberry bugs use their mouthparts to feed on seeds within fruits • Southern Florida: feed on balloon vine with large fruit • Longer beaks • Central Florida: feed on goldenrain tree with small fruit • Shorter beaks • Correlation between fruit size and beak size also observed in Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Australia Soapberry bug with beak inserted in balloon vine fruit

  29. RESULTS Figure 22.13b Beak 10 On native species, southern Florida 8 6 4 2 0 Number of individuals Museum-specimen average 10 On introduced species, central Florida 8 6 4 2 0 6 7 8 9 10 11 Beak length (mm)

  30. Evidence of Natural Selection: Response to Introduced Plant Species • In all locations, beak size has evolved in populations that feed on introduced plants • Fruits smaller or larger than native fruits • Evolution by natural selection • In Florida, this evolution in beak size occurred in less than 35 years

  31. Evidence of Natural Selection: Antibiotic resistant bacteria • Staphylococcus aureus is commonly found on people • S. aureus became resistant to penicillin in 1945, two years after it was first widely used • One strain, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a dangerous pathogen • S. aureus became resistant to methicillin in 1961, two years after it was first widely used

  32. Evidence of Natural Selection: Antibiotic resistant bacteria • Methicillin= inhibits a protein used by bacteria in their cell walls • MRSA bacteria use a different protein in their cell walls • When exposed to methicillin, MRSA strains are more likely to survive and reproduce than nonresistant S. aureus strains • MRSA strains are now resistant to many antibiotics

  33. Evidence of Natural Selection: Antibiotic resistant bacteria Antibiotic Applied Reproduction Final population composed of high resistance strains Most bacteria killed, High resistance strains remain

  34. Evidence of Natural Selection: Antibiotic resistant bacteria • Natural selection does not create new traits • Works on existing traits already present in the population • Mutations are raw material for natural selection to act on • Local environment determines which traits will be selected for or selected against in any specific population

  35. Evidence of Natural Selection: Comparative Anatomy • Homology= similar characteristics resulting from a common ancestor • Homologous structures= similar structure in features even if function is different • Example: Vertebrate Forelimbs

  36. Figure 22.15 Humerus Radius Ulna Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges Bat Whale Cat Human

  37. Evidence of Natural Selection: Comparative Anatomy • Comparative embryology reveals anatomical homologies not visible in adult organisms

  38. Evidence of Natural Selection: Comparative Anatomy • Vestigial structures= remnants of features with served important functions in the organism’s ancestors

  39. Evidence of Natural Selection: Molecular Biology • Homologies also occur at the molecular level • Genes shared among organisms inherited from a common ancestor

  40. Evidence of Natural Selection: Molecular Biology • Evolutionary history contained in an organism’s DNA • Closely related species will have more similarities in DNA than distantly related species • Darwin proposed all life forms are related • Supported by molecular biology • All organisms use same genetic language- DNA and RNA • Same genetic code for nearly all organisms • Humans and bacteria share homologous genes

  41. Evidence of Natural Selection: Evolutionary Trees • Evolutionary trees= hypotheses about the relationships among different groups • Form nested patterns in evolutionary trees • Made using different types of data • Anatomical similarities • DNA sequence data

  42. 1 3 2 5 4 6 Figure 22.17 Branch point Lungfishes Amphibians Tetrapods Mammals Digit-bearing limbs Amniotes Lizardsand snakes Amnion Crocodiles Homologouscharacteristic Ostriches Birds Feathers Hawks andother birds

  43. Evidence of Natural Selection: Evolutionary Trees • Convergent evolution= evolution of similar, or analogous,features in distantly related groups • Arise when groups independently adapt to similar environments in similar ways • Convergent evolution does not provide information about ancestry

  44. Evidence of Natural Selection: Biogeography • Biogeography= geographic distribution of species • Island animals resemble species on closest mainland more than they resemble species on islands closer and farther away • Explanation: Animals on islands migrated from mainland, natural selection changed animals over time into separate species • Galapagos Finches • Marsupials in Australia

  45. Evidence of Natural Selection: Biogeography • Alfred Russel Wallace (1823–1913) • Father of biogeography • Best known as the co-discoverer of the principles of natural selection with Darwin • Main contribution was the study of species distributions across large spatial scales

  46. Evidence of Natural Selection: Biogeography • Wallace (1860) observed that animals can vary considerably over very short distances • Could not be explained until continental drift was proposed • Continental drift from movement of Earth’s plates explains the distributions of some species • Type of macroevolution

  47. Types of Evolution • Macroevolution= change in groups above the level of species, often results in new taxonomic groups • Methods of Macroevolution • Adaptive radiation= periods of change when many new species originate from a common ancestor • Mass extinctions= large number of species go extinct within a relatively short amount of time • 5 mass extinctions have occurred through geological time with 50% or more species lost • Plate tectonics and Continental drift= movement of Earth’s plates

  48. Mass Extinction Event Mass Extinction Event