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IV Therapy

IV Therapy. Advanced Paramedic Skills. Intravenous Therapy- Homeostasis. Fluid Distribution. 50-60% of the body is composed of water = 42L intracellular (= ? L) extracelluar (=? L) 16% interstitial fluid 4% intravascular (. Objectives of IV therapy. Restore and maintain fluid balance

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IV Therapy

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  1. IV Therapy Advanced Paramedic Skills

  2. Intravenous Therapy- Homeostasis

  3. Fluid Distribution • 50-60% of the body is composed of water = 42L • intracellular (= ? L) • extracelluar (=? L) • 16% interstitial fluid • 4% intravascular (

  4. Objectives of IV therapy • Restore and maintain fluid balance • Restore and maintain electrolyte balance • Provide medications and route for them • Transfuse blood and blood products • Deliver parenternal nutrients and nutritional supplements

  5. Definitions • Dehydration is loss of TOTAL body water • Edema – accumulation of fluid in interstitial space • Volume depletion – loss of isotonic solution • Fluid Excess – extra water or fluid in a specific compartment (overall vs lungs) • So what is shock…….it depends! Remember type of shock – cardiogenic vs hypovolemic vs anaphylactic

  6. Electrolytes • Positively charged particles in body, critical for function • Positive cations (Na, K, Ca, Mg) • Negative anions (Cl, PO4) • Also hydrogen H+ which is important in Acid/Base balance • These can move across membranes, either via active or passive transport. • Water follows various ions via a process called ?

  7. Movement of Water • Active Transport • specialized channels • Facilitated Diffusion • carrier molecule • Simple Diffusion • (greater-lesser concentration) Osmosis • Is the movement of water from an area of low particle concentration to an area of high particle concentration or • Is the movement of water from an area of high concentration to an area of low water concentration

  8. Tonicity • Concentration or size of particles in a solution: • Isotonic - meaning equal on both sides • Hypotonic –less inside (net movement OUT) • Hypertonic –more inside (net movement IN) • Ever do the egg experiment?

  9. Tonicity • When the concentration of particles and charges are unequal on both sides of the semi-permeable membrane the side with the less particles is called “hypotonic” and the side with more particles is called “hypertonic”

  10. Isotonic

  11. Hypertonic

  12. Hypotonic

  13. How it works in real life Red cells in hypertonic solution

  14. So What?? • It is important to understand these principle when you do are involved in any level in IV therapy • Picking an IV solution • Want to get as close to ‘real’ blood as possible, unless there are other conditions, e.g need for sugar etc

  15. Types of IV solution • Isotonic • 0.9% saline = Normal saline (NS) • 2/3 and 1/3 (2/3 NS and 1/3 D5W) • lactated ringers (RL) • Hypertonic (Mannitol,7% saline) • Hypotonic ( D5W= 5% dextrose in water)

  16. Selection of Solution • Normally NS and RL for most patients • D5W when some glucose is reguired or with various drugs (don’t mix with NS) • Hypertonic or 7% saline when need rapid increase in intravascular volume (army) • As ordered by Physician

  17. A Review – What are the two types of sets? ? ? ? ?

  18. Newbie Paramedic gets a call! Gets to hospital to transfer a patient with an IV of NS in Left cephalic vein going at 60cc/hr . It is a 10gtts macro set. A. How many gtts/min will he set up his IV? b. If the order is to infuse 120mL over 2hours then?

  19. Calculating IV Drip rates • ml/hr Amount of solution = ml/hr Number of hours • drops/ml is the set type (macro or micro) Drops/ml = drops/ml • sec. between drops Drops/minute  60 = sec between drops

  20. Lets do it! Two important formulas • Ml/hr Total ml fluid to be infused = ml/hr total hours to give the fluid • Drops/minute Drops/ml x amount of fluid to be infused/hr = total time of infusion (minutes) Of the set In mL drops/minute

  21. Our Keen newbie says.. First, if I have to do 60 ml over 1 hr, that is…….60 mL/hr a. In gtts /min b. Calculate ml/hr rate if he has to give 200 ml over 1.5 hour

  22. a. 10 drops/mL x 60/hr =? 60 minutes = 10 gtts/min b. 200 ml = ? ml/hr 1.5 hrs =133 ml/hr In gtts/min 10 gtts/mL x 133 = ? 60 minutes 22 gtts/minute or 1 drop every 3 secs

  23. Some more practice • See in iv monitoring package

  24. Here’s a Tip!! • mL/hr is the same as gtts/min in a Microset!! Yah for common sense!! 40 ml/hr is the same as 40 gtts/min IF you have a 60 gtts micro set

  25. Things that Effect Flow Rates • Patient positioning – 3ft above • Vein spasms • Pheblitis/Thrombi • Type of fluid (viscosity) • Amount of fluid in bag • Height • Tubing kinked • Catheter size • Catheter position • infiltration

  26. Troubleshooting • If an IV does not run well, start with the patient. Ensure patient still stable. Check site, position • Then move backwards towards the bag, checking clamps etc • What can happen? • examples

  27. Pheblitis –inflammation of vein • Lack of asceptic technique • Delayed site change • Mechanical/chemical irritation • Allergy • Poor positioning

  28. Hematoma –thats bleeding! • Perforation of posterior vein wall • Lack of adequate pressure following unsuccessful attempt • Tourniquet reapplied over recent site

  29. Intersitial IV - • Perforation of posterior vein wall • Dislodgement due to movement • Catheter in position of flexion • Catholon not properly secured

  30. Other Bad things… • Systemic complications – such as? • Signs and symptoms • What do we do? • Pulmonary Emboilism • Signs and symptoms • What do we do? • Air Emboli • Signs and symtoms • What do we do?? • Catheter emboli • Fluid Overload

  31. Practice • Review BLS IV Procedures in IV Handout

  32. For Next Week • Read Textbook 450-469 • 471-473 saline lock • 480 peripheral iv removal

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