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Bipolar Junction Transistor By: Engr. Syed Asad Ali Acknowledgement Large Part Of This Lecture is Taken From Manipal PowerPoint Presentation
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Bipolar Junction Transistor By: Engr. Syed Asad Ali Acknowledgement Large Part Of This Lecture is Taken From Manipal

Bipolar Junction Transistor By: Engr. Syed Asad Ali Acknowledgement Large Part Of This Lecture is Taken From Manipal

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Bipolar Junction Transistor By: Engr. Syed Asad Ali Acknowledgement Large Part Of This Lecture is Taken From Manipal

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  1. BASIC ELECTRONICS Bipolar Junction Transistor By: Engr. Syed Asad Ali Acknowledgement Large Part Of This Lecture is Taken From Manipal Institute India

  2. Introduction to Bipolar Junction Transistor BJT Operation BJT Configurations Transistor Application BJT Biasing Lecture Contents

  3. Solid state transistor was invented by a team of scientists at Bell laboratories during 1947-48 It brought an end to vacuum tube era Advantages of solid state transistor over vacuum devices: Smaller size, light weight No heating elements required Lower power consumption and operating voltages Low price Introduction

  4. Introduction Figure showing relative sizes of transistor, IC and LED Figure showing different transistor packages

  5. Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) is a sandwich consisting of three layers of two different types of semiconductor Two kinds of BJT sandwiches are: NPN and PNP Introduction

  6. The three layers of BJT are called Emitter, Base and Collector Base is very thin compared to the other two layers Base is lightly doped. Emitter is heavily doped. Collector is moderately doped NPN – Emitter and Collector are made of N-type semiconductors; Base is P-type PNP – Emitter and Collector are P-type, Base is N-type Both types (NPN and PNP) are extensively used, either separately or in the same circuit Introduction

  7. Transistor symbols: Introduction Arrow is Always Drawn On Emitter. Arrow Always Points towards N Type. Emitter and Collector are always made up of same type of Material.

  8. BJT has two junctions Emitter-Base (EB) Junction Collector-Base (CB) Junction Analogous to two diodes connected back-to-back: EB diode and CB diode The device is called “bipolar junction transistor” because current is due to motion of two types of charge carriers – free electrons & holes Introduction

  9. Three Mode Of Operation Transistor Operation

  10. Operation of NPN transistor is discussed here; operation of PNP is similar with roles of free electrons and holes interchanged For normal operation (amplifier application) EB junction should be forward biased CB junction should be reverse biased Depletion width at EB junction is narrow (forward biased) Depletion width at CB junction is wide (reverse biased) Transistor Operation

  11. When EB junction is forward biased, free electrons from emitter region drift towards base region. Base is Thin and Lightly Doped, hence have very minimum Holes. Only small percentage of Emitter free electrons combine with holes in the base to form small base current. While majority of the free electrons are swept away into the collector region due to reverse biased CB junction. Transistor Operation

  12. Three currents can be identified in BJT Emitter current This is due to flow of free electrons from emitter to base Base current This is due to recombination of free electrons and holes in the base region Small in magnitude (usually in micro amperes) Collector current Has two current components: One is due to injected free electrons flowing from base to collector Another is due to thermally generated minority carriers (Leakage) Ideally equals to IE Transistor Operation

  13. Note the current directions(Conventional) in NPN and PNP transistors For both varieties: ---(1) C IC C IC IB IB B B IE IE E E NPN PNP Transistor Operation

  14. BJT has three terminals. To Properly use it, it Must have 2 or 4 Leads Due to this reasons one of the BJT terminals needs to be made common between input and output Accordingly three configurations exist: Common Base (CB) configuration Common Emitter (CE) configuration Common Collector (CC) configuration 2-port device Input Output Transistor Configurations

  15. Transistor Configurations • Common Base configuration • I/p Is Applied At Emitter & Base • O/p Is Taken From Collector & base • Base is common between input and output • Current Amplification Factor (Gain) • Ratio Of O/p Current to I/P Current • In Common Base • Input current: IE • Output current: IC • Alpha is Always Less then Unity • Usually between 0.9 to 0.99 • We can improve the value of current amplification factor (but not more than one) by minimizing the recombination in the base and this is achieved by doping the base very lightly and making it very thin.

  16. Transistor Configurations • Common Emitter configuration • I/p Is Applied At Base & Emitter • O/p Is Taken From Collector & Emitter • Emitter is common between input and output • Current Amplification Factor (Gain) • Input current: IB • Output current: IC • β= IC / IB • β is always Greater then 1 • Usually between 50-200

  17. Transistor Configurations • Common Collector configuration • I/p Is Applied At Base & Collector • O/p Is Taken From Emitter & Collector • Collector is common between input and output • Current Amplification Factor • Input current: IB • Output current: IC • γ =IE/IB As IE=IC so Above Formula Will be equal to Beta, Hence C.C provide same Current Gain As C.B

  18. Summary

  19. Transistor Application • Transistor As Amplifier • Transistor As a Switch

  20. Transistor As Amplifier • Amplification is the process of linearly increasing the strength of electrical signal • Weak Signal Is Applied at the Input and Amplified(Strong Signal Is Collected at the Output) • For amplifier application, transistor should operate in Active Region

  21. Transistor As Switch • When Transistor is Operated as A switch it is normally Operated in Cutoff & Saturation Mode • Conditions For Cutoff • B.E Junction Is Reverse Bias • No Input Current • B.C Junction Is Reverse Bias • No Output Current or No Collector Current • Neglecting Leakage Current • Transistor Behave as Open Switch • Condition For Saturation • B.E & B.C Junction Is Forward Bias • Maximum Or Large Input (base)Current • Maximum Output Current (Collector Current ) • Transistor Behave as Close Switch

  22. Advantages • Fast Switching • Millions of Time in a Sec • Low Operating Voltage/Current • mAmp, mV • Less or No Noise in Switching • SwitchOn/OffBy Light, Heat or Wireless Signal • Applications Of Transistor Switch • Fridge Door Alarm, Dimming Light, Computers

  23. What is meant by biasing the transistor? Applying external dc voltages to ensure that transistor operates in the desired region/Mode Which is the desired region? For amplifier application, transistor should operate in Active Region For switch application, it should operate in cut-off and saturation. Transistor Biasing

  24. Types of biasing: • Base Bias • Emitter Bias • Voltage Divider Bias

  25. Base Bias Pros: Simple circuit Uses very few resistors Cons: This Circuit is unstable Parameters can be changed with Temperature & from Transistor to Transistors Transistor Biasing

  26. Emitter Bias: Pros: Good stability compares to Base Bias Cons: This type can only be used when a split (dual) power supply is available (Costly $) Transistor Biasing

  27. Voltage Divider: Pros: Unlike above circuits, only one dc supply is necessary. Stable Circuit Cons: Circuit Analysis Is Complex Requires Many Components (Resistors) Transistor Biasing