The Human Respiratory System Take a deep breath and relax
What does the Respiratory System Do? _______________________________…………… …….but what is ______________________???
Respiration __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ There are two types ____________________________ ____________________________
External Respiration The exchange of _______ and __________ Between the ____________ and the blood in the ______________ _______________~~~~~~~~~from the lungs into the blood _______________~~~~~~~~from the blood into the lungs
Internal Respiration The exchange of gases between the _______________ and ___________________ ….at the cellular level ….remember the capillaries?? __________~~~~~~from the blood to the cells __________~~~~~~from the cells to the blood
Breathing IN _______________________________ The intercostal muscles---between the ribs---and diaphragm _________________________ to open the chest cavity and allow air to flow in The diaphragm _________________
Breathing OUT __________________________________ The intercostal muscles and diaphragm ______________________, closing the cavity, forcing are out The diaphragm _________________
What allows for inhalation and exhalation? …….inspiration??? …….or expiration??? No, really what is it that allows us to breathe?
What allows for breathing? _____________________________!!! When the chest expands, the ______________ inside is less then the ________________ outside, so air moves in to equalize the _______________ When you exhale, the _______________ inside becomes greater than the _______________ outside, so the air moves out The air will move toward the area of lesser __________________.
Structure • Nose • Pharynx • Larynx • Trachea • Bronchi • Bronchioles • Alveoli • Lungs
What makes up the respiratory system? Lungs Series of pathways through which the air travels Upper respiratory Lower respiratory
The Upper Respiratory The nose or nasal cavity Cilia ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ And throat or pharynx ________________________ Flap of cartilage located above the larynx (voice box) that folds down to close the trachea (wind-pipe) when you swallow
Lower Respiratory _________________ or voice box Connects the pharynx and trachea _________________ or wind pipe lined with c-shaped cartilaginous rings _________________ Airways that connect the trachea to the lungs
Lower Respiratory cont. ____________________ Small tubes that connect the bronchi to the alveoli Takes air closer to the point of external respiration ____________________ Tiny balloon-like sacs arranged in clusters (like grapes) surrounded by capillaries Where the exchange of gases takes place __________________________________________________________________ ______________________ Principle organs of the respiratory system
Capillary Wall of the Air Sac Carbon Dioxide is dropped off Oxygen is picked up Red Blood Cell
Diaphragm The muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Irritants of the Respiratory System Why Do I Yawn?_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________~~a YAWN. Why Do I ______________________?Sneezing is like a cough in the upper breathing passages. It is the body's way of removing an irritant from the sensitive mucous membranes of the nose. Many things can irritate the mucous membranes. Dust, pollen, pepper or even a cold blast of air are just some of the many things that may cause you to sneeze.
Irritants of the Respiratory System Cont. What Causes Hiccups?Hiccups are the sudden movements of the _______________________. It is involuntary --- you have no control over hiccups, as you well know. There are many causes of hiccups. The diaphragm may get irritated, you may have eaten to fast, or maybe some substance in the blood could even have brought on the hiccups. What Causes _____________________________ When something gets into your trachea and/or bronchi and irritates it, your body sends you a signal to cough, so your body can get rid of that irritant
Care of the Respiratory System How do you keep your respiratory system healthy? Do you smoke---tobacco or otherwise? Do you know what that can do to your ability to access and use the essential oxygen? Do you avoid environmental pollutants when possible? If you can avoid breathing in what is not meant to be breathed in, just imagine the benefits!! Do you know what happened to those heroes on 9-11 that were forced to breathe in the remnants of the Twin Towers Not only are they psychologically suffering, they are physically suffering as well
Care of the Respiratory System cont. Do you exercise? Do you know what cardio-respiratory endurance is? You are not only improving the efficiency of your heart, you are also improving your lung efficiency and capacity Do you practice good personal hygiene? Do you wash your hands to help prevent infections of the respiratory system
Fun Facts about the Respiratory System -The right lung is slightly larger than the left. -Hairs in the nose help to clean the air we breathe as well as warming it. -The highest recorded "sneeze speed" is 165 km per hour. -The surface area of the lungs is roughly the same size as a tennis court. -The capillaries in the lungs would extend 1,600 kilometers if placed end to end. -We lose half a litre of water a day through breathing. This is the water vapor we see when we breathe onto glass.
Fun Facts Cont. -A person at rest usually breathes between 12 and 15 times a minute. -The breathing rate is faster in children and women than in men. -Human lungs have approximately 1500 miles of airways. -300 million alveoli can be found in a set of human lungs. -The average person breathes in the equivalent of 13 pints of air each minute. -Plants help humans to breathe by taking in the carbon dioxide humans exhale and converting it into oxygen that humans need.
Fun Facts Cont. -Guinness World Records lists Charles Osborne from Anthon, Iowa as a record-holder for hiccupping. He hiccupped for 68 years. -Young children laugh an average of 300 times a day, while adults average somewhere between 15 to 100 times. -The saying that ‘Laughter is the best medicine’ may have some truth to it. It is said that laughing helps boost the immune system.
Problems of the Respiratory System Bronchitis An inflammation of the ____________________ Caused by an infection or exposure to irritants _______________________________________ _______________________________________ The membranes produce excessive mucus in the airways Treated with meds that dilate the bronchial passageways
Pneumonia An inflammation of the lungs Commonly caused by a _______________ or _________________infection __________________ swell and become clogged with mucus – decreases the gas exchange Cough, fever, chills, chest pain Bacterial can be treated with _________________ Sometimes requires hospitalization and/or surgery to remove the excess fluids
Pleurisy Inflammation of the lining of the lungs and chest cavity
Asthma _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Involuntary muscle contraction of the smooth airway muscles that causes wheezing Acute-can be relieved with an inhaler May require meds to reduce inflammation Avoid triggering irritants
Sinusitis Inflammation of the tissues that line the sinuses _______________________________________________________________________________________ Nasal congestion, headache, fever Treat with nasal decongestant or sprays and antibiotics
Tuberculosis Contagious __________________ infection that usually affects the lungs Immune system surrounds the infected area and isolates it – can last many years without symptoms Active symptoms Cough, fever, fatigue, weight loss Treated with antibiotics
Emphysema __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Difficulty breathing and chronic cough Tissue damage is irreversible ***almost always caused by smoking
Lung Cancer Cancer of the cells and tissues of the lungs _______________________________________________________________________________________ Can be caused by smoking, second-hand smoke, radon (second leading cause)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Irritation of the lungs can lead to the following: ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Many people develop two or three of these together Can be caused by smoking
Cystic Fibrosis An inherited disease affecting the lungs. CF causes the ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The mucus can clog the airways in the lungs and make a person more likely to get bacterial infections