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Pain PowerPoint Presentation

Pain

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Pain

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  1. Pain Teresa V. Hurley, MSN, RN

  2. Duration of pain • Acute • Rapid in onset, varies in intensity and duration • Protective in nature • Chronic • May be limited, intermittent, or persistent • Lasts for 6 months or longer • Periods of remission or exacerbation are common

  3. Gate Control Theory of Pain • Relationship between pain and emotions • Small and large diameter nerve fibers conduct and inhibit pain stimuli • Gating mechanism determines impulses that reach the brain

  4. Factors Affecting Pain Experience • Culture • Ethnic variables • Family, gender, and age variables • Religious beliefs • Environment and support people • Anxiety and other stressors • Past pain experience

  5. General Assessments of Pain • Client’s verbalization and description of pain • Duration of pain • Location of pain • Quantity and intensity of pain • Quality of pain • Chronology of pain

  6. General Assessments of Pain (continued) • Aggravating and alleviating factors • Physiologic indicators of pain • Behavioral responses • Effect of pain on activities and lifestyle

  7. Wilda Scale • Words that describe the pain • Intensity of pain • Location of pain • Duration of pain • Aggravating or alleviating factors

  8. Nursing Interventions for Pain • Establishing trusting nurse-patient relationship • Initiating nonpharmacologic pain relief measures • Considering ethical and legal responsibility to relieve pain • Teaching patient about pain

  9. Distraction Humor Music Imagery Nonpharmacologic Pain Relief Measures

  10. Nonpharmacologic Pain Relief Measures • Relaxation • Acupuncture

  11. Hypnosis Biofeedback Therapeutic touch Nonpharmacologic Pain Relief Measures

  12. Pharmacologic Pain Relief Measures • Analgesic administration • Nonopiod analgesics • Opioids or narcotic analgesics • Adjuvant drugs (enhance the action of main drug)

  13. Numeric Sedation Scale • 1 — awake and alert, no action necessary • 2 — occasionally drowsy, but easy to arouse, no action necessary • 3 — frequently drowsy, drifts off to sleep during conversation, reduce dosage • 4 — somnolent with minimal or no response to stimuli, discontinue opiod, consider use of naloxone

  14. Pain Management Regimens for Cancer or Chronic Pain • Give medications orally if possible. • Administer medications around the clock time rather than prn. • Adjust the dose to achieve maximum benefit with minimum side effects. • Allow client’s as much control as possible over the regimen.