Pain Kate Black Kate Brazzale Lisa Molony
Pain • Aetiology • Disorder/Disease • Clinical Manifestations • Pathophysiology • Diagnosis • Pharmacological Management • Non-Pharmacological Management • Complications • Implications for Nursing Practice
Aetiology • Kh;asdo;sdifj;os
Diagnosis • Diagnosis of Pain is complicated. • To diagnose pain, Nurses rely on • Objective Data. • Visual signs. • Subjective Data. • Patients descriptions. • Characteristics of Pain.
diagnosis • Characteristics of Pain • OPQRST Mnemonic • Onset • Provocation • Quality • Region/Radiation • Severity • Time
diagnosis • Onset • What was the patient doing at the time? • What precipitated the pain? • Provocation • Aggravating Factors: • What causes the Pain to increase? • Alleviating Factors: • What makes it better or worse?
diagnosis 3.Quality • Get the patient to describe their pain to you in specific terms. • What does it feel like? 4. Region/Radiation • Where is the pain? • Where does the pain radiate? • Is it in one place? • Does it go anywhere else? • Did it start elsewhere and now localised to a different spot?
diagnosis 5. Severity • Pain Rating • On a scale of 1 to 10, 10 being the worst pain you have experienced, what number would you assign to your discomfort? • Does their pain change with medication? • Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale. • Used for • Children • People whose first language is not English.
diagnosis 6. Time • When did the pain start? • How long has the patient has this pain? • Are there any Associated Phenomena? • Factors consistent with pain e.g. Anxiety • Physiological responses • Sympathetic stimulation • Parasympathetic stimulation • Vital signs, skin colour, perspiration, pupil size, nausea, muscle tension, anxiety • Behavioural Responses • Posture, gross motor activities
Diagnostic Tests Tests to verify pain. • CT/CAT scan • Computed Tomography or Computed Axial Tomography • X-rays to produce an image of a cross-section of the body. • MRI Scan • Large magnet, radio waves and a computer produces detailed images of the body. • Discography/Myelograms • A contrast dye is injected into the spinal disk to enhance the X-Ray.
Diagnostic - Tests • EMG (Electromyography) • Evaluate the activity of the muscles. • Bone Scans • Diagnose and monitor infection and fracture of the bone • Ultrasound Imaging • High frequency sound waves to develop an image of the affected area.
Diagnostic Tests • Psychological Assessment • Psychosocial involvement. • Questionnaires.
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