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Personality Discussion

Personality Discussion

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Personality Discussion

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  1. Personality Discussion • How would you describe your own personality? • Is your personality the same as it was 5 years ago? Will it be the same in 5 years? • Does your personality change based on the situation?

  2. Chapter 10: Personality Psychological qualities that bring continuity to an individual’s behavior in different situations and at different times

  3. Used to explain… • Stability in person’s behavior over time and across situations (consistency) • Behavioral differences between people reacting to the same situation (distinctiveness) • Theories – help understand the causes of similarities and differences among people

  4. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory • Psychoanalytic theory: early childhood experiences, unconscious motives/conflicts, and methods used to cope with sexual & aggressive urges • Personality, behavior, and disorders are determined by basic drives and past psychological events. • Unconscious: thoughts, memories, desires well below the surface of conscious awareness, but still exert great influence on behavior • Sexual & aggressive impulses – major source of conflict • Ambiguous social norms – inconsistent messages about what is appropriate • Thwarted more often than other urges

  5. Drives and Instincts(psychic energy) • Eros (life instincts) – drives people towards acts that are life giving • Libido (energy behind eros) – drives people to experience sensual pleasure • Thanatos (death instincts) – drives people toward aggressive and destructive behaviors

  6. Freud’s Model of the Mind

  7. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory PLEASURE PRINCIPLE Id Primitive, unconscious portion of personality; houses most basic drives and stores repressed memories Superego Ego

  8. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory MORAL PRINCIPLE Id Mind’s storehouse of values, moral attitudes learned from parents and society; same as common notion of conscience Superego Ego

  9. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory REALITY PRINCIPLE Id Conscious, rational part of personality; charged with keeping peace between superego and id Superego Ego

  10. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory • Ego defense mechanisms: Largely unconscious mental strategies employed to reduce the experience of anxiety or guilt • Repression: keeping distressing thought/feelings in the unconscious • Projection: attributing one’s own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another • Regression: reversion to immature patterns of behavior • Denial: arguing against an anxiety by stating that it doesn’t exist

  11. More Defense Mechanisms • Undoing: attempt to take back thoughts/ behaviors that are unacceptable • Displacement: diverting emotional feelings from their original source to a substitute target • Reaction Formation: acting in a way opposite of one’s true feelings • Sublimation: acting out unacceptable impulses in a socially acceptable way • Rationalization: creating false, but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior

  12. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory Psychosexual stages: Successive, developmental periods with a characteristic sexual focus that leave their mark on adult personality Oral Stage Anal Stage Phallic Stage Latency Genital Stage

  13. Assessing Unconscious Processes • Projective tests: Personality assessment instruments based on Freud’s concept of projecting hidden motives, interests, conflicts; ambiguous stimuli • Rorschach inkblot technique • Sentence completion • Free association • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

  14. Rorschach Inkblot

  15. Thematic Apperception Test

  16. Neo-Freudian and Psychodynamic Theories • Accepted basics: personality structure, unconscious, childhood influence, anxiety • Disagreed in two ways: • More emphasis on the conscious mind • Sex and aggression not main motivators • Alfred Adler and Karen Horney – emphasized social factors • Adler: Supported inferiority complex • Horney: Against penis envy; need for love and security • Carl Jung – still focused on unconscious • Collective unconscious: shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history

  17. Humanistic Perspective • Third Force – emphasized human potential; gave rise to positive psychology • Self-concept: thoughts and feelings about ourselves; central feature of personality • Self-esteem: How we evaluate ourselves • Abraham Maslow • Hierarchy of Needs • Self-actualization: fulfilling one’s potential • Carl Rogers • Unconditional positive regard: total acceptance toward another • Fully-functioning person: has a self-concept that is positive and congruent with reality

  18. Trait Perspective • Gordon Allport • Traits: Stable personality characteristics that are presumed to exist within the individual and guide his/her thoughts and actions under various conditions • Central traits form the basis of personality • Secondary traits include preferences and attitudes • Cardinal traits define peoples lives

  19. Patterns in PersonalityTrait Theory • Type: Clusters of traits that are not only central to a person’s personality but are found with essentially the same pattern in many people • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assessment • The Big Five (McCrae) – handout • Best approximation of the basic trait dimensions • NEO-PI assessment • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) – abnormal assessment • Person-situation controversy: dispute over the relative contribution of personality factors and situational factors in controlling behavior (criticizes trait theory)

  20. Social-Cognitive Theories • Bandura – interaction between people’s traits (including thinking) and social context • Personality is a collection of learned behavior patterns (skills, attitudes, beliefs, fears) and the way we think about situations • Self efficacy: our learned sense of competency • What we do/try to do is largely controlled by our beliefs about our chances of success at it • Reciprocal determinism: Process in which cognitions, behavior and environment mutually influence each other

  21. Cognition Environment Behavior Reciprocal Determinism

  22. Implicit Personality Theories • Implicit personality theories: Assumptions about personality that are held by people to simplify the task of understanding others • Fundamental attribution error: Assumption that another person’s behavior (especially undesirable behavior) is the result of a flaw in the personality, rather than in the situation