Download
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN

FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN

168 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN Japan mostly mts. Japan politically fragmented  feudal warfare Small intensively farmed plots  Cooperative soc. Few invasions Less need for strong govt. Less contact w/Asia  Pick & choose for. ideas Resourceful traders & craftsmen Japan being islands Few resources Civilization comes later to Japan Yayoi Culture (c.300 B.C.E.) importing tech. from Asia Yamato Culture (c.300 C.E.) from Asia with horses & better iron tech.: Shintoism which reveres cleanliness, nature, & head of Yamato clan as its religious leader Clans (Uji) who gradually absorb each other through marriage, relig. ties & diplomacy as well as war Yamato Clan unifies Most of Japan by 400 C.E. Japan more open to Chinese influence: Buddh. scriptures Use writing to keep govt. records Confucianism Respect authority & strict hierarchy Growing centralization of the state despite resistance Taika Reforms (645 C.E.) to adapt Chinese govt. techniques to Japan: Permanent capital at Kyoto Turn hereditary nobles into appointed officials Census & redistribution of land to peasants Systematic taxation Taiho Law Code (702), based on Chinese code, organized govt. w/strong emphasis on court ceremony & ritual rather than military strength Increased power of emperor & court, but with Japanese modifications: Omission of Mandate of Heaven Officials & monasteries tax exempt Birth still basis for promotion Even bad emp’s ran little risk of revolution Narrower tax base & greater burden on the poor Hereditary nobles kept status in Japan Still a step forward in the development of Japanese state (FC.60)

  2. A FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN

  3. A FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN Japan being islands

  4. A rock formation off the coast of Japan

  5. A view of the rocky coast of Japan

  6. Waves pounding the coast of Japan

  7. A

  8. A FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN Japan being islands Impact on govt. & foreign policy?

  9. A FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN Few invasions Less need for strong govt. Japan being islands Influence from Asian mainland?

  10. FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN Less contact w/Asia  Pick & choose for. ideas Few invasions Less need for strong govt. Japan being islands Resources?

  11. A FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN Less contact w/Asia  Pick & choose for. ideas Few invasions Less need for strong govt. Japan being islands Impact on Jap. character? Few resources • Import resource dependency: • Copper 96.5% • Lead 78.4% • Zinc 61% • Bauxite 100% • Nickel 100% • Iron 99.7% • Coal 83.9% • Oil 99.8%

  12. A FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN Resourceful traders & craftsmen Less contact w/Asia  Pick & choose for. ideas Few invasions Less need for strong govt. Japan being islands Topography? Few resources

  13. A FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN Resourceful traders & craftsmen Less contact w/Asia  Pick & choose for. ideas Few invasions Less need for strong govt. Japan mostly mts. Japan being islands Few resources

  14. Kiomizu (meaning clear water) Dera

  15. Komagatake Volcano in Hokkaido, in Northern Japan, is 1140 meters high and still active, the latest eruption being in 1942.

  16. Mt. Fuji, Japan’s tallest mountain and the inspiration for much of its art

  17. Mt. Fuji

  18. Mt. Fuji again

  19. A Mt. Fuji with a bullet train, symbol of Japan’s modernization, in the foreground

  20. A Mt. Fuji without a bullet train, symbol of Japan’s modernization, in the foreground

  21. Earthquakes. Another major problem sporadically hitting Japan throughout its history has been earthquakes, since it rest on the convergence of the Pacific, Eurasian, and Philippine Sea tectonic plates. In 1857, an earthquake devastated Tokyo, killing 107,000 people, a much worse toll than the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake, which took 3,000 lives.

  22. 1923 Kanto earthquake *** Even more devastating was the Great Kanto Earthquake that struck Tokyo on September 1, 1923, triggering what certainly ranks as one of history’s greatest “perfect storms” in terms of catastrophes. The quake hit with an estimated strength of 7.9, snapping buildings in two. Earthquake at noon while cooking lunch

  23. 1923 Kanto earthquake Being midday, there were already thousands of charcoal fires burning to prepare lunch. The quake combined these to set the city, which was largely made of wood and paper, on fire. Earthquake at noon while cooking lunch Big fire

  24. 1923 Kanto earthquake The conflagration was ferocious enough to generate a firestorm with high winds that further stoked the fire, further intensifying the winds, and so on. Earthquake at noon while cooking lunch Big fire Firestorm -> high winds

  25. 1923 Kanto earthquake Meanwhile, the earthquake had triggered two other effects: a tsunami and a series of landslides that swept away and/or buried entire villages with bodies and flying debris. The fires raged for three days, leaving 60% of Tokyo and 80% of Yokohama destroyed, along with an estimated 142,807 people killed. Earthquake at noon while cooking lunch Big fire Landslide Tsunami Firestorm -> high winds Helped put out fires

  26. A FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN Resourceful traders & craftsmen Less contact w/Asia  Pick & choose for. ideas Few invasions Less need for strong govt. Japan mostly mts. Japan being islands Impact on polit. Structure? Few resources

  27. A FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN Resourceful traders & craftsmen Less contact w/Asia  Pick & choose for. ideas Few invasions Less need for strong govt. Japan mostly mts. Japan being islands Japan politically fragmented  How peaceful? Few resources

  28. A FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN Resourceful traders & craftsmen Less contact w/Asia  Pick & choose for. ideas Few invasions Less need for strong govt. Japan politically fragmented  feudal warfare Japan mostly mts. Japan being islands Agr. & size of plots? Few resources

  29. A FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN Resourceful traders & craftsmen Less contact w/Asia  Pick & choose for. ideas Few invasions Less need for strong govt. Small intensively farmed plots  Cooperative soc. Japan politically fragmented  feudal warfare Japan mostly mts. Japan being islands Small intensively farmed plots  Impact on soc? Few resources

  30. A FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN Resourceful traders & craftsmen Less contact w/Asia  Pick & choose for. ideas Few invasions Less need for strong govt. Small intensively farmed plots  Cooperative soc. Japan politically fragmented  feudal warfare Japan mostly mts. Japan being islands Few resources

  31. Ainu, some of the surviving aboriginal inhabitants of Japan who were gradually driven to the northern parts of Japan. Originally Caucasians from Siberia, they may have spoken an early form of Japanese, which is totally different from Chinese Referred to as emishi (~barb's) & "earth spiders”, they were tough fighters whom early emperors recruited as guards. Many Samurai traditions (e.g., curved swords) were likely taken from the Ainu.

  32. A FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN Resourceful traders & craftsmen Less contact w/Asia  Pick & choose for. ideas Few invasions Less need for strong govt. Small intensively farmed plots  Cooperative soc. Japan politically fragmented  feudal warfare Japan mostly mts. Japan being islands Few resources How early does civ. come to Jap? Civilization comes later to Japan

  33. A FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN Resourceful traders & craftsmen Less contact w/Asia  Pick & choose for. ideas Few invasions Less need for strong govt. Small intensively farmed plots  Cooperative soc. Japan politically fragmented  feudal warfare Japan mostly mts. Japan being islands Few resources Civilization comes later to Japan

  34. Women’s status in early Japanese society was relatively high, as seen in the prominence of goddesses in Japanese mythology and of women (who might even lead in warfare) in early legends. One legend was that of a sorceress Pimiko, who supposedly lived shut up w/1000 women & one man who was used to communicate orders to her subjects. Ancient custom of female rule continued to 700's CE. Not until the 1400's did women assume totally submissive roles. Even then, women of samurai rank might be proficient with weapons, especially the niginata (below).***

  35. A FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN Resourceful traders & craftsmen Less contact w/Asia  Pick & choose for. ideas Few invasions Less need for strong govt. Small intensively farmed plots  Cooperative soc. Japan politically fragmented  feudal warfare Japan mostly mts. Japan being islands Few resources Civilization comes later to Japan Yayoi Culture (c.300 B.C.E.) importing tech. from Asia

  36. A FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN Resourceful traders & craftsmen Less contact w/Asia  Pick & choose for. ideas Few invasions Less need for strong govt. Small intensively farmed plots  Cooperative soc. Japan politically fragmented  feudal warfare Japan mostly mts. Japan being islands Few resources Civilization comes later to Japan Yayoi Culture (c.300 B.C.E.) importing tech. from Asia Yamato Culture (c.300 C.E.) from Asia with horses & better iron tech.: Religion? Clans (Uji) who gradually absorb each other through marriage, relig. ties & diplomacy as well as war Keyhole shaped tomb of early aristocracy of Japan

  37. *** FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN Resourceful traders & craftsmen Less contact w/Asia  Pick & choose for. ideas Few invasions Less need for strong govt. Small intensively farmed plots  Cooperative soc. Japan politically fragmented  feudal warfare Japan mostly mts. Japan being islands Few resources Civilization comes later to Japan Yayoi Culture (c.300 B.C.E.) importing tech. from Asia Yamato Culture (c.300 C.E.) from Asia with horses & better iron tech.: Shintoism which reveres cleanliness, nature, & head of Yamato clan as its religious leader Clans (Uji) who gradually absorb each other through marriage, relig. ties & diplomacy as well as war

  38. A The “floating tori-e” near Hiroshima. Such gateways marked entrances to Shinto shrines

  39. Two Japanese girls wash their hands and rinse their mouths to show their reverence for nature before entering a Shinto Shrine

  40. Ritsuen Koen on the island of Shikoku, showing the Japanese appreciation of and striving for harmony with nature

  41. Itsukushima

  42. Wedded Rocks Shinto Shrine

  43. Fushimi Torii

  44. A FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN Resourceful traders & craftsmen Less contact w/Asia  Pick & choose for. ideas Few invasions Less need for strong govt. Small intensively farmed plots  Cooperative soc. Japan politically fragmented  feudal warfare Japan mostly mts. Japan being islands Few resources Civilization comes later to Japan Yayoi Culture (c.300 B.C.E.) importing tech. from Asia Yamato Culture (c.300 C.E.) from Asia with horses & better iron tech.: Shintoism which reveres cleanliness, nature, & head of Yamato clan as its religious leader Clans (Uji) who gradually absorb each other through marriage, relig. ties & diplomacy as well as war Political organization?

  45. A FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN Resourceful traders & craftsmen Less contact w/Asia  Pick & choose for. ideas Few invasions Less need for strong govt. Small intensively farmed plots  Cooperative soc. Japan politically fragmented  feudal warfare Japan mostly mts. Japan being islands Few resources Civilization comes later to Japan Yayoi Culture (c.300 B.C.E.) importing tech. from Asia Yamato Culture (c.300 C.E.) from Asia with horses & better iron tech.: Shintoism which reveres cleanliness, nature, & head of Yamato clan as its religious leader Clans (Uji) who gradually absorb each other through marriage, relig. ties & diplomacy as well as war

  46. JimmuTenno, the legendary first emperor of Japan and grandson of the sun goddess, Amaterasu. The imperial family’s divine lineage has kept it on Japan’s throne throughout its recorded history.

  47. A FC.59 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY JAPAN Japan being islands Japan mostly mts. Japan politically fragmented  feudal warfare Small intensively farmed plots  Cooperative soc. Few invasions Less need for strong govt. Less contact w/Asia  Pick & choose for. ideas Resourceful traders & craftsmen Few resources Civilization comes later to Japan Yayoi Culture (c.300 B.C.E.) importing tech. from Asia Yamato Culture (c.300 C.E.) from Asia with horses & better iron tech.: Shintoism which reveres cleanliness, nature, & head of Yamato clan as its religious leader Clans (Uji) who gradually absorb each other through marriage, relig. ties & diplomacy as well as war Yamato Clan unifies Most of Japan by 400 C.E. Japan more open to Chinese influence: Chinese philosophy that affected Jap. society & how? Buddh. scriptures Use writing to keep govt. records Confucianism Respect authority & strict hierarchy