Chapter 12 Food & Nutrition
Health Standards • HE HS 1: • Students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention to enhance health. • Example classroom topics within this standard • Personal choices as it relates to eating habits • Healthy eating habits • Balanced meals
Health Standards • HE HS 2: • Students will analyze the influence of family, peers, culture, media, technology, and other factors on health behavior. • Example classroom topics within the standard • Beliefs, values and practices passed from family to child • Media, peers and technology influence on behaviors – Advertising • Cultural norms vs. reality
Health Standards • HE HS 3: • Students will demonstrate the ability to access valid information and products and services to enhance health. • Example classroom topics within this standard • Reliability and quality of product information • food labels • Food Pyramid (myplate.gov) • USDA
Health Standards • HE HS 4: • Students will demonstrate the ability to use interpersonal communication skills to enhance health and avoid or reduce health risks. • Example classroom topics within the standard • Communicate healthy food choices • Brochure for basic nutrients
Health Standards • HE HS 5: • Students will demonstrate the ability to use decision-making skills to enhance health. • Example classroom topics within the standard • Difference between appetite and hunger • Consequence of excess nutrients • Which foods provide specific nutrients
Health Standards • HE HS 6: • Students will demonstrate the ability to use goal setting skills to enhance health. • Example classroom topics within the standard • Setting short and long term goals • Steps towards accomplishing goals and how personal decisions can have an effect on them • Daily food log
Health Standards • HE HS 7: • Students will demonstrate the ability to practice health enhancing behaviors and avoid or reduce health risks. • Example classroom topics within the standard • Choose healthy foods / balanced meals • Follow dietary guidelines • Understand food labels
Health Standards • HE HS 8: • Students will demonstrate the ability to advocate for personal, family and community health. • Example classroom topics within the standard • Healthful eating • Food safety • New product(healthy) creation • Advertising • Commercial for new product
Chapter 12 EQ: • What are the 6 essential nutrients the body has to have and why does it need them?
Words to Know Nutrition Cholesterol Deficiency Dehydration Nutrients Fiber Glycogen Hemoglobin Fats Homeostasis Metabolism Minerals Protein Carbohydrates Amino acids Vitamins Anemia Saturated Fats Daily Values Calories Glucose Food Guide Pyramid Nutrient Density Essential Amino Acids Malnutrition Unsaturated Fats Protein-energy malnutrition Words in red are the 6 essential nutrients
Nutrient • A substance found in food that the body needs to regulate body functions, promote growth, repair body tissue, and obtain energy. • 6 Essential Nutrients: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, water, vitamins, and minerals
Nutrition • The process of taking in and using nutrients.
Calories • Units used to measure the amount of energy released when nutrients are burned. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BPc5C76q2O0 www.calorieking.com/foods/
Metabolism • How fast your body breaks down nutrients • Fast metabolism= eat a lot and not get fat • Slow metabolism = look at food and gain weight (hyperbole).
Amino Acids • The building blocks of protein. There are 20 in all.
Proteins • One of the 6 essential nutrients that plays a role in growth and repair of body tissue. • Common food sources of protein: beef, pork, poultry, fish, milk, cheese, nuts, dried beans and dried peas. • 4 calories per gram • 2-3 servings a day
Carbohydrates • One of the 6 essential nutrients that includes sugars, starches, and fiber. • Give a lot of energy without a lot of calories • 4 calories per gram • Foods that provide lots of carbs: bread, cereal, rice, pasta, whole grains • 6-11 servings a day
Glucose • A simple sugar that is a major provider of energy for your body’s cells. • Stored glucose is calledglycogen.
Fiber • Indigestible material found in skins of fruits and vegetables, whole grain breads and cereals, and seeds. • Cleans out the colon and prevents constipation and reduces the risk of colon cancer.
Fats • One of the 6 essential nutrients with the highest amount of energy. • They make up your cells, maintain body temp, and protect nerves and tissue. • They are also needed for growth and for healthy hair and skin. • 9 calories per gram
Saturated Fats • Considered the “bad” fat. • Come from animal sources of food. • Usually solid at room temperature. • Contain cholesterol- waxy fat-like build up from animal sources of food.
Unsaturated Fat • Considered the “good” fat • Comes mainly from plant sources • Usually liquid at room temperature
Water ●2/3 of your body is made of water Blood 83% muscles 75% Brain 74% bones 22% ● Necessary for all life processes ● If you perspire from hot weather, Fever or strenuous exercise, this Water must be replaced. ● Females 10, 8 oz. Cups of water daily. ● On the average fruits, milk Products and vegetables contain About 75% water.
Dehydration • A serious reduction in the body’s water content • Symptoms include weakness, rapid breathing, and weak heartbeat • When the body becomes dehydrated, it loses important electrolytes and water. http://bobjinx.blogspot.com/2009/04/traumas-animations-dehydration.html
Homeostasis • The process of maintaining a steady state in your body. • Example: temperature = 98.6 • Water contains electrolytes. • By helping to adjust body temperature and electrolyte balance, water plays an important role in homeostasis.
Electrolytes • Sodium, chloride and potassium belong to this group of minerals. • Help maintain the balance of fluid within body cells. • Bananas-orange juice excellent sources of potassium. • Table salt probably provides you with enough sodium. Most people use too much salt! • Important to replace fluids during exercise in hot weather. • Runners eat salt packets during long runs • You will find electrolytes in Gatorade! • Reduction of the body’s water content is know as dehydration
Vitamins • One of the 6 essential nutrients that is made by living things, is needed in small amounts, and aids in chemical reactions. • No calories.
Fat Soluble Vitamins • Vitamins A, D, E, and K • Dissolve in fatty material and can be stored. • Found in vegetable oils, liver, eggs, and certain vegetables.
Water Soluble Vitamins • Vitamins B and C • Dissolve in water and can not be stored by the body, so they are needed every day. • Vitamin C is an antioxidant . An antioxidant helps protect cells from aging and cancer. • B vitamins: Support and increase metabolism Maintain healthy skin, hair and muscle tone Enhance immune and nervous systems Promote cell growth Reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer - one of the most lethal forms of cancer - when consumed in food, but not when ingested in vitamin tablet form.
Minerals • Come from rocks and soil • 6 minerals needed in significant amounts: calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, sodium, potassium, and chlorine • Iron is needed for healthy red blood cells and to help prevent anemia, a condition in which the red blood cells do not contain enough hemoglobin, an iron-containing substance that carries oxygen from your lungs to all parts of the body.
Hemoglobin • Iron-containing substance in red blood cells which carries oxygen from your lungs to the rest of the body. • If a person’s diet doesn’t contain enough iron, he may develop anemia and become pale, weak, and tired. Anemics also get sick very easily.
Deficiency • When you don’t get enough of a specific nutrient. • Example – If you don’t get enough vitamin c in your diet, you might have a vitamin c deficiency.
Nutrient Density • The proportion of nutrients compared to calories. High nutrient dense foods Low nutrient dense foods
Dietary Guidelines….. • 1. Eat a variety of foods • 2. Balance the food you eat with physical activity • Balance intake with energy expenditure • Control body fat over body weight • All calories add up, no matter the source • 3. Choose plenty of grains, vegetables and fruit • 4. Choose an eating style low in fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. • 5. Choose an eating style moderate in sugars. • 6. Choose an eating style moderate in salt and sodium.
Healthful Eating • Variety – moderation – balance are the keys to healthful eating. • Breakfast: your most important meal. • Lunch – dinner – snacks are all important in your overall eating plan.
Food Label Basics • Every food label will have the following information….. - Serving size - Servings per container. - Calories per serving and calories per serving from fat. • Grams of total fat, saturated fat, total carbohydrate, fiber, sugars, protein and milligrams of cholesterol and sodium per serving. • Percentage of the daily value (dv) the product supplies of the above nutrients (except sugar and protein), plus some important minerals and vitamins in one serving.
Daily Values • The amounts of specific nutrients that the average person should obtain each day.
Malnutrition • Any condition in which a person’s nutrient consumption is inadequate or unbalanced
Protein-Energy Malnutrition • The body doesn’t get enough calories to meet the body’s energy needs. • The Number one cause of malnutrition? Poverty
Childhood Obesity Is A Problem!! Obesity is a serious health concern for children and adolescents. Data from NHANES surveys (1976–1980 and 2003–2006) show that the prevalence of obesity has increased: for children aged 2–5 years, prevalence increased from 5.0% to 12.4%; for those aged 6–11 years, prevalence increased from 6.5% to 17.0%; and for those aged 12–19 years, prevalence increased from 5.0% to 17.6%. http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/index.html
You have to watch what you eat to avoid risk factors of a bad diet…diseases, weight gain, heart problems, poor physical performance.
PROBLEM? • Most people are unable to distinguish between appetite and hunger. • Hunger – a natural drive that protects you from starvation • When your stomach is empty, its walls contract, stimulating nerve endings. The nerve endings signal your brain that your body’s food supply needs replenishing. Once food is taken in, your stomach is stretched and the nerve endings are no longer stimulated. • Appetite – a desire, rather than a need, to eat • Dessert, sweet tooth, snacking, boredom
What Influences Your Diet? Your Environment • CULTURE – picnics, family outings, holidays, traditions, birthday parties, religious beliefs • FAMILY & FRIENDS – food decisions, preferences, likes developed at a young age, convenience, lifestyle • ADVERTISING – tv, magazines, shows, movies, billboards, deceptive, images • TIME & MONEY – convenience, lifestyle, avoid skipping meals, cheap fast food Emotions • Depressed, frustrated, boredom, stressed • Can result in overeating or lose of appetite