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Chapter 9 Developing and Organizing the Presentation

Chapter 9 Developing and Organizing the Presentation

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Chapter 9 Developing and Organizing the Presentation

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  1. Chapter 9 Developing and Organizing the Presentation Brittany Larsen & Jess Sharp

  2. “Some experts have estimated that speakers address audiences an astonishing 33 millions times each day” “According to one survey, businesspeople give an average of 26 presentations a year”

  3. Analyzing the Situation • Consider: • The audience • Yourself as the speaker • The occasion

  4. Analyzing the Audience “Designing a presentation without an audience in mind is like writing a love letter and addressing it ‘To Whom It May Concern.’” –corporate communication expert (p. 249)

  5. Analyzing the Audience • Who Are the Key Audience Members? • Not everyone in the audience is equally important • How Much Do They Know? • What Do They Want to Know? • “People will listen to you if you address their interests, not yours” • What Are Their Personal Preferences? • “the first rule for anyone giving a report is to ask those who requested the report what form they would like it to take.”

  6. Analyzing the Audience • Which Demographic Characteristics Are Important? • Gender, age, cultural background, economic status • What Size Is the Group? • Copies of handouts • Size of visual aids • How much time for Q&A • What Are the Listeners’ Attitudes? • Two sets of attitudes • You as the speaker • Your subject

  7. Analyzing Yourself as the Speaker “While you can learn to speak better by listening to other speakers, a good presentation is rather like a good hairstyle or sense of humor: What suits someone else might not work for you. One of the biggest mistakes you can make is to try to be a carbon copy of some other effective speaker.”(p. 254)

  8. Analyzing Yourself as the Speaker • Your Goal • Why are you speaking • How to know when you’ve succeeded • Your Knowledge • Have considerable knowledge on your subject • It’s better to over-prepare • Your Feelings about the Topic • “You can’t sell a product you don’t believe in” • Show sincerity • You can’t always control what you have to present on, but you can change your approach/attitude towards it if necessary

  9. Analyzing the Occasion • Facilities • Seating (Room arrangement options p. 255) • Equipment • Distractions • Time • Time of day • Length of time • Context • Previous speakers • Current events

  10. Setting Your Goal & Developing the Thesis • Goals • General • Specific • Developing the Thesis • Central or Key Idea

  11. General Goal • “A broad indication of what you’re trying to accomplish” (p. 257) • Three general speaking goals: inform, persuade, and entertain • Inform • Expand listeners knowledge • Persuade • Focus on trying to change what an audience thinks or does • Entertain • Get participants to relax and look forward to upcoming events

  12. Specific Goal • Describes the outcome you are seeking • Desired outcomes or reactions • “I want (who) to (do what) (how, when, where).” • Be as specific as possible • Vague vs. Specific • “I want to collect some donations in this meeting” vs. “I want to collect at least $15 from each person in this meeting” • Ex. • “I want the people who haven’t been participating in the United Way campaign to sign up.

  13. Developing the Thesis • Also referred to as the central idea or key idea • “A single sentence that summarizes your message.” • It is so important that you will repeat it several times during your presentation: • At least once during the introduction • Several times during the body • Again in the conclusion • Without the thesis, your audience will miss much of what you say

  14. Goal Thesis Examples Goal • I want this client to advertise on our website • Workers will be more careful about conserving • I want to acquire new customers seeking this state-of-the-art technology Thesis • Advertising on our website will boost your sales • Energy conservation cuts expenses, which leaves energy money for salaries • Recent advances have dramatically changed industry in the past few years

  15. Organizing the Body Brainstorming ideas Basic organizational plan Identify main points and subpoints Choose the best organizational pattern

  16. Brainstorming • Gathering research • How much do you know? • Research what you don’t know • How do you want to come across to your audience? • **A brainstorming list is a random assortment of points. Don’t worry about being too organized yet at this point

  17. Basic Organizational Plan • Most presentations suffer from: • Taking too long to get to the point • Including irrelevant material • Leaving out necessary information • Getting ideas mixed up • Organize your ideas beforehand • “First, tell them what you’re going to tell them; then, tell them; then, tell them what you told them”

  18. Organization Plan Format • Introduction • Attention-getter • Thesis • Preview • Body • Between 2-5 main points • Conclusion • Review • Restate thesis • Closing statement

  19. Identify Main Points and Subpoints • Decide which key points best support your thesis • The “one week later” test • “What do you want your audience to remember one week after your presentation?” • Identify main points first then add subpoints based off the main points

  20. Choose the Best Organizational Pattern • Chronological Pattern • Arranges your points according to their sequence in time • Spatial • Organizes material according to how it is put together or where it is physically located • Topical • Groups your ideas around some logical themes or divisions in your subject • Cause-Effect • Shows that certain events have happened or will happen as a result of certain circumstances

  21. Choose The Best Organizational Pattern Cont. • Problem-Solution • Shows the audience something is wrong with the present situation and then suggests how to remedy it • Criteria-Satisfaction • Sets up criteria the audience will accept and then shows how your idea or product meets them • Comparative Advantages • Puts several alternatives side-by-side to show why yours is the best • Motivated Sequence • Five-step scheme designed to boost the audiences involvement and interest 1. Attention 2. Need 3. Satisfaction 4. Visualization 5. Action

  22. Rules for Main Points • Main points should be stated as claims • A claim is a statement asserting a fact or belief • Ex. “It’s essential to choose a health care provider from the list of approved doctors” rather than “choosing a physician.” • This will often endure the “one week later” test • All points should develop the thesis • A presentation should contain no more than five main points • Main points should be parallel in structure when possible • Example in book page 272 “We can reduce” • Each main point should contain only one idea

  23. Planning the Introduction & Conclusion Functions of the introduction Types of opening statements Functions of the conclusion Types of closing statements

  24. Functions of the Introduction • Capture the listeners attention • Give your audience a reason to listen • Show them why your message is important • Set the proper tone for the topic and setting • Opening remarks, dress, etc. • Establish your qualifications • Establish credibility if necessary • Introduce your thesis and preview your presentation • This is so your listeners know what they should be looking for and where you are headed

  25. Types of Opening Statements • Ask a question • Tell a story • Personal experiences will capture the audiences attention • Present a quotation • Using a source with high credibility to back up your message • Make a startling statement • Statistical fact, etc. • Refer to the audience • Mention their needs, concerns • Refer to the occasion • Use humor

  26. Functions of the Conclusion • The review • Restate thesis • Summary of your main points • You can subtly reword the same information • The closing statement • This should help your listeners remember you and your message favorably • End strong or your listeners may forget what you presented on

  27. Types of Closing Statements • Return to the theme of your opening statement • “Coming full circle” gives a sense of completeness • Split your story. Start in your introduction, but don’t finish until your conclusion • Appeal for action • Ask for the desired result from your audience • End with a challenge • “Why be average when you can be superior?”

  28. Adding Transitions • Words or sentences that connect the segments of a presentation • Examples: • In addition • However • For example • Similarly • On the other hand • In other words • For that reason • Finally • Etc.

  29. Functions of Transitions They promote clarity They emphasize important ideas They keep listeners interested

  30. “The way you spend preparation time is more important than the actual number of hours you spend.” • “Speakers are like athletes: Time spent planning and practicing is an investment that produces winning results.” • (P. 249)