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Ch 4 - Learning Objectives Scope Management PowerPoint Presentation
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Ch 4 - Learning Objectives Scope Management

Ch 4 - Learning Objectives Scope Management

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Ch 4 - Learning Objectives Scope Management

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  1. Ch 4 - Learning ObjectivesScope Management You should be able to: • Discuss the relationship between scope and project failure • Describe how strategic business planning is related to project selection • Explain how projects are initiated and selected • Define activities, inputs, and outputs of scope initiation, planning, definition, verification • Prepare a project charter • Construct a WBS

  2. Scope Management • Processes are needed to ensure that: • The project includes all required work • The project includes only required work • Product scope • features and functions of product deliverables • measured against product requirements • Project scope • work that must be done to deliver them • measured against project plan

  3. Scope Management Processes • Project Initiation • commitment to next phase • Scope Planning • written scope statement • Scope Definition: WBS • Scope Verification: formalacceptance • Scope Change Control

  4. Scope Initiation • Initiating a new project, or • Commitment to the next phase of an existing project • Inputs: • product description/business need • strategic plan/goals • project selection criteria & methods • expert judgment, historical information

  5. Strategic Planning, Leading toProject Selection • Business strategy and goals • SWOT analysis • IT systems help companies compete • Identify and prioritize opportunities Business Needs PotentialProjects Selected Projects Business Goals

  6. Methods for Project Selection • Organizational Need Perspective • Perceived need? • Likelihood of funding? • Willingness to support? • Source, time, impact, priority • problem • opportunity • directive • Financial Perspective

  7. Project Selection High Cost/Risk A C B D Low Cost/Risk E F G Low Benefit High Benefit

  8. Financial Perspective • Cost/benefit analysis • NPV - net present value • ROI - return on investment • Payback analysis • Limitations: difficulty of estimating • Weighted scoring model • incorporates multiple criteria

  9. Weighted Scoring Model • Determine criteria • Weight criteria by importance • Score each project on each criterion • Multiply scores by weights • Get overall score for each project • Select project with highest score • “What-if” analysis may be helpful

  10. Scope Initiation Outputs • Project Charter • Conceptual baseline • Project Manager selected • Constraints • factors that will limit the team’s options • e.g., fixed budget • e.g., contractual provisions • Assumptions

  11. Formalizes existence of project Provides direction on objectives Signoff by key project stakeholders Charter Components: title, date project manager scope statement summary of approach roles and responsibilities matrix sign-off comments (assumptions, constraints) Project Charter

  12. Scope Planning • Inputs to planning = outputs of initiation • description and charter • constraints and assumptions • product description and analysis • cost/benefit analysis

  13. Scope Planning Outputs • Written Scope Statement • justification: business need • product description • project deliverables • quantifiable criteria for success • Common understanding of project

  14. Scope Definition • Decomposition of project into more manageable components • sufficiently detailed for tasks, estimation • Helps improve estimation accuracy • Defines a baseline for measurement and control • Clarifies responsibilities

  15. Work Breakdown Structure • Analysis of work needed to complete project • Hierarchical breakdown of tasks • Provides basis for planning and change control • Can be organized around products or phases • Work package is lowest, detailed level • Requires involvement of project team and customers • Helps identify needed coordination

  16. Approaches to Preparing a WBS • Use formal templates if available • Use previous similar projects’ WBS • Top-down • iteratively add levels of detail • Bottom-up • team members identify detailed tasks • tasks are aggregated and summarized • creates buy-in by project team • Combination

  17. WBS Principles • A unit of work appears only once • Each unit of work responsibility is assigned to one person • Each unit of work must have a clear scope • WBS reflects how work will be done • serves project team first • Must be flexible to accommodate changes

  18. Scope Verification • Formal acceptance by stakeholders • Inputs: • Work results from execution of project plan • Product documentation • Inspection • Outputs: • documented level of completion • documented acceptance

  19. Scope Control and Project Failure • Project failure often due to scope getting out of control • Did not understand requirements • Or, allowed requirements to grow • On average, project scope increases 4-fold • “Requirements (scope) creep” • users see potential for automation, ask for more • users want new system for current jobs

  20. Reducing IT Project Scope Creep • User involvement • project selection: ensure sponsor • easy access to project information • users as member(s) of project team • regular meetings with users • co-location with users • focus on completion dates • prototyping, use cases, JAD, CASE