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Review Instrument Final

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  1. Review Instrument Final

  2. Instrument Currency • “To act as PIC of an aircraft on an IFR flight plan, one must have logged (within the preceding 6 months): • 6 approaches • holding • intercepting and tracking navigation courses • or passed an IPC

  3. Spatial Disorientation • Conflict between the signals relayed by your central vision and information provided by your central vision • Movement of snow or rain out the window • Airplane next to you begins to taxi

  4. Hypoxia • Hypoxic • high altitudes • Hypemic • CO, anemia, smoking • Stagnant • high G’s • Histotoxic • alcohol, drugs

  5. Slip and Skid • Slip - rate of turn is too slow for the bank and the ball moves to the inside of the turn • Skid - rate of turn is too great for the angle of bank and the ball moves to the outside of the turn

  6. Magnetic Compass • Errors • Variation - the angular difference between the true and magnetic pole • Deviation - errors due to magnetic interference with the metal components of the aircraft • Magnetic dip - the compass tries to point down deep inside the earth

  7. ISA • International Standard Atmospheric Sea Level - 150 C - 29.92 in HG • Before IFR flight the altimeter set to the current altimeter setting should be within 75 feet of the actual elevation

  8. Fundamental Skills • Cross Check • Instrument Interpretation • Aircraft Control

  9. Instrument Failure • Any instrument may fail separately • In addition, any system may fail. • Vacuum system failure • Electrical system failure • Pitot system failure • Static system failure

  10. Ground Facilities - VOR • Operate in 108.0 - 117.95 MHz Band • Standard Service Volumes (SSV) • High Altitude(HVOR) - 200 watts, up to 130 nm, used for airways • Low Altitude(LVOR) - about 100 watts, up to 40 nm, used for airways • Terminal(TVOR) - 50 watts, 25 nm, used for approaches

  11. VOR Receiver Checks • VOT • 180’ TO, 360’ FROM; +/- 4’ • VOR Ground Checkpoint • Indicated radial; +/- 4’ • VOR Airborne Checkpoint • Indicated radial; +/- 6’ • Centerline of airway; +/- 6 • Dual VOR Check • Within 4’

  12. DME • Ground based - VOR/DME, VORTAC, ILS/DME, LOC/DME • Interrogation and response • rate * time = distance • Uses slant distance - 1 NM away for each 1000’ elevation

  13. Pilot Responsibilities • See and Avoid • IFR Climb Considerations • Optimum until 1000 feet of assigned altitude • 500 to 1500 feet per minute for last 1000 feet

  14. Pilot Responsibilities • Adhere to a clearance • Emergency • Violate an FAR • Responding to a traffic alert and collision avoidance system resolution advisory (TCAS RA)

  15. Elements of an IFR Clearance • Aircraft identification • Clearance limit • Departure procedures • Route of flight • Altitudes or flight levels • Cruise clearance

  16. Abbreviated IFR Clearance • Cleared as file • Clearance limit or destination airport • SID name, number and transition • Altitude and additional instructions • frequency and transponder code

  17. Readback • Initial enroute clearance in entirety • Subsequently • Altitude Assignments • Radar Vectors • any instruction requiring verification • ATC clears, ATC advises, ATC requests

  18. Tower Enroute Clearance • Short, low altitude routes between terminal areas • Published in Airport/Facilities Manual • Generally below 10,000 feet, less than 2 hours in nonturbojet aircraft

  19. IFR Departure Procedures • Standard • 200’/nm climb gradient • 35’ at end of runway • 400’ HAA before turning • Nonstandard • Avoidance by climb or heading • denoted by T on IAP • description in front of IAPs

  20. Rate of Climb Table Climb Rate Ft. per NM Ground Speed

  21. REPORTING PROCEDURESRADAR/NONRADAR • Anytime • Leaving altitude • Leaving any assigned holding fix • Missed approach • <500 fpm climb/decent • TAS varies>5% or 10 kts • Time & altitude reaching a holding fix • Loss of Nav/Comm(Equip) • Unforecast weather

  22. REPORTING PROCEDURESNONRADAR (position reports) • At required reporting points • I D • P osition • T ime • E levation • E TA next • N ext next

  23. REPORTING PROCEDURESNONRADAR (position reports) • Example • KC center • KS81 • Salina • 1530 • FL300 • HYS 1545 • Lamar next

  24. Holding Pattern • Race track shaped pattern • 1 Min Inbound legs <14000’ MSL • 1 1/2 min > 14000’ MSL • Standard holding pattern is right turns • At Nav facility, intersection, or Radial/DME

  25. Departure and Arrival Charts • DPs, STARs and visual approaches are routinely assigned by ATC • DPs and STARs are issued to simplify clearance delivery procedures. • Use “No DP” or “No STAR” in remarks, if you do not want to use them

  26. Departure and Arrival Charts • To accept a DP you must at least have the textual description • Use the rate of climb table in Legend 18 to convert a specified minimum rate of climb per NM to convert the climb rate into feet per minute

  27. Reduce Workload • Simple, easy to understand, one page • Accommodate many types of aircraft • Use VORTACs • Avoid DME arcs • Altitude crossing and airspeed restrictions included if normally used

  28. Enroute • MRA( Minimum Reception Altitude) is the lowest altitude at which an intersection can be determined • MOCA(Minimum Obstruction Clearance Altitude) assure acceptable navigation signal coverage only within 22 NM of VOR

  29. Enroute • MEA( Minimum en route altitude) is the lowest published altitude between radio fixes which assures acceptable navigational coverage and meets obstacle clearance requirements

  30. Enroute • MCA(Minimum Crossing Altitude) is the lowest altitude at a fix at which an aircraft must cross when proceeding in the direction of a higher MEA

  31. Enroute • Obstruction clearance in nonmountainous areas is guaranteed for the MOCA and all minimum IFR altitudes providing at least 1,000 ft of vertical distance from the highest obstruction 4 NM either side of the center of the airway

  32. VFR-ON-TOP • VFR-on-top can be conducted only after a pilot has received a VFR-on-top clearance • A pilot must request a VFR-on-top clearance • Must comply with the VFR altitudes

  33. VFR-ON-TOP • Both IFR and VFR rules apply • Prohibited in Class A airspace • A clearance “to VFR-on-top” is to fly through cloud layers to VFR conditions on top

  34. Reports • Advise ATC when your airspeed changes by 5% or 10 knots whichever is greater • On a direct routes, the fixes defining the routes become compulsory reporting points

  35. Reports • When not in RADAR contact on a non-precision approach, report to ATC any time you leave a final approach fix inbound on the final approach

  36. Holding • Turns are made to the right in a standard holding pattern, and to the left in a non-standard holding pattern • The entry procedure for a holding pattern depends on your heading relative to the holding course

  37. Holding Patterns

  38. Approach Categories • Computed as 1.3 VSO • A - Up to 90 knots • B - 91 to 120 • C - 121 to 140 • D - 141 to 165 • E - above 165

  39. Approach Charts • The letters IAF indicate the location of an initial approach fix • The procedure title indicates the type of approach system used and the equipment required to fly the approach

  40. Approach Charts • MSA( Minimum Safe Altitude) provides 1,000 ft of obstruction clearance usually within 25 NM • Neither navigation nor communication coverage is guaranteed

  41. Approach Charts • Absence of a procedure turn or holding pattern indicates a course reversal is not authorized • TDZE(Touchdown zone elevation) is the highest elevation in the first 3,000 ft of the landing surface

  42. Approach Charts • TCH(Threshold crossing height) is the altitude at which you cross the runway threshold when established on the glide slope centerline • The procedure turn must be completed within the prescribed distance from the facility

  43. Approach Charts • The precision approach FAF is located at the minimum glide slope intercept point • When on the glide slope during a precision approach, the missed approach point is the decision height

  44. Approach Charts • When the glide slope becomes inoperative during an ILS procedure, localizer minimums are used • Substitution for certain ILS components, when the component is inoperative are permitted

  45. Approach Charts • If your groundspeed decreases, the rate of descent required to stay on glide slope must also decrease • Localizer and glide slope indications become more sensitive as you get closer to the runway

  46. Approach Procedures • An LDA approach is comparable to a localizer, but is not aligned with the runway • An SDF may offer less accuracy than an LDA approach