670 likes | 842 Vues
Electricity Principles of Electricity as it is related to hair. Electricity. Form of energy – produces light, heat, magnetic and chemical changes. Current. Flow of electrons along a path called a conductor. Load. Electrically powered appliances Ex. Blowdryer or curling iron.
E N D
Electricity • Form of energy – produces light, heat, magnetic and chemical changes.
Current • Flow of electrons along a path called a conductor.
Load • Electrically powered appliances • Ex. Blowdryer or curling iron
Conductors • Material that best transports electricity to a load. • Silver and copper are best (contain ions) • Water and human body are conductors
Insulators • Material that does not allow current to pass through it. • Protects user from current. • Silk, wood, plastic, rubber, glass, paper, brick, cloth, alcohol, oil and pure distilled water. • Old cords, rubber insulators with fabric coating. • Became easily frayed, caused shorts
Cord Safety • Cord – copper wire insulated with rubber • Keep cords free of kinks to prevent breaks which might cause electrical shock.
Amp • Measures the strength • Power box to the house supplies amps. • Amp rating show how much strength.
Volt • Measures pressure • Measures how hard electrons are pushed by source. • 110 to 220V • 220 has V prongs on plug • Large motors need 220
Ohm • Measures Resistance • Measures how difficult it is to push electrons through a conductor. • OHM’s rating = resistance of motion of electrons.
Watt • Measures Amount Used • 1 watt is small amount of energy • Blowdryer = 1000 watts per second • 1000 watts = 1 kilowatt
Hertz • Measures Frequency • Hertz = Hz • Nameplate gives listing of Hz
It is on the label pg 93 in text • Tells how many volts and amps a product uses. • Volts X Amps = watts 1000 watts equals 1 kilowatt Homework • Find 2 appliance's that you would use in a salon? • Find the watts • How much is would cost to run for one hour? Will assign the appliance's
Electric Current • Exists in two forms: • DC – Direct Current – electrons move at an even rate; flow is in one direction. • AC – Alternating Current – electrons flow first in one direction and then in the other.
Sources of Electricity • Converter changes DC to AC • Rectifier changes AC to DC Converter Rectifier
Generator Diesel Generator • Produce alternating current • Uses mechanical energy to produce flow of electrons. Boiler/Steam Generator Wind Generator Solar Powered Generator
Battery • Has a positive (+) and negative (-) terminal • Produces direct current only • Electrons flow toward positive terminal
Producing Electric Current • Must have a SOURCE and CIRCUIT. Circuit Source
Circuit • Path through which electrons travel. • Closed – Electrons leave the source and operate an appliance. • Open – Broken path of electron flow. Open Closed
Parallel Wiring • Several loads can operate at once or at different times; • use parallel wiring in salon.
Series Wiring • All loads must run at the same time
Overload • More current flows than the line is designed to carry. • Frequent problem due to the number of stylist and electrical itemsused in salons.
Short Circuit • Be sure to check cords for any breaks in the wire. • Often happens when curling irons or flat irons are left on and the cord comes in contact with the hot iron causing the cord to melt.
Fuse • Connects directly to the circuits in the power box • Contains fine metal wirethat allows current to flow through it. • Overload = melted wire • Fuse can not be reused
Circuit Breaker • Connects directly to the circuits in the power box. • Reusable device that breaks flow of current when over load occurs. • 2 pieces of metal make contact-separate if circuit is broken.
Grounding Wire(3 – wire system) • Protects user with certain appliances • Prevents excess flow of current from going to user • 3 – prongs, round one connects to grounded wall socket • It is not safe to plug a 3-prong cord into a 2-prong socket.
First Aid for Shock • Step 1 – Knock person out of the circuit by using an insulator; broom or plastic pail. • Step 2 – Unplug the appliance use an insulator to avoid circuit. • Step 3 – Rush to the power box and turn off all circuit breakers.
Local Shock Procedure • Local Shock - Passes through small part of the body. • Immerse in cold water immediately • If severe –take to hospital • Keep immersed until cold and stopped swelling • Blot dry and apply antiseptic cream
General Shock Procedure • General Shock - Passes through the nervous system. • First – Break the circuit before touching the person; dial 9-1-1. • Start CPR; continue with CPR until emergency team arrives.
Electrical Fires Emergency Procedures • Remember: NO WATER! • Turn off the circuit • Smother the fire with rug, towel or powder.
Electricity By Use In the Salon • Thermal/Heat Examples: • Generates heat • Curling Irons • Combination Examples: • Generates heat and produces flow of air • Blow Dryers • Mechanical Examples: • Has a motor • Clippers
Effects of Electric Current • Heating • More resistance = more heat • Heating elements heat up when current flows through. • Mechanical or Magnetic • Push – pull effect causes motor to turn • Electrochemical • Electric current travels through a water – based solution to produce relaxing or stimulating effects.
Demonstration of Electrotherapy • http://youtu.be/3dtN4aSz128 Music http://youtu.be/KQHL_o-hB0k
Galvanic Current • Oldest form of electrotherapy • Appliance (rectifier that is built into the machine) necessary to convert AC toDC • Direct current – low volt and high amp • Chemical effects caused by passing current through acid or alkaline solutions and/or by passing current through body tissues and fluids.
Phoresis (Bleaching) • Process of forcing an acid or alkali into the skin by applying current to the chemical. • Chemical penetrates the skin without breaking the skin. • Most typical application of Galvanic Current
AnaphoresisNegative Pole (catode) • Process of forcing liquids into tissues from the negative toward the positive pole. • Desincrustation – used tosoften and emulsify grease deposits (oil) and blackheads in the hair follicles. • Used to treat acne, milia, and comedones.
CataphoresisPositive Pole ( anode) • Forces acidic substances into deeper tissues using galvanic current from the positive toward the negative pole.
Effects of Galvanic Current Anaphoresis Negative – pole Produces alkaline reactions Opens the pores Stimulates and irritates the nerves Increases blood supply Expands blood vessels Softens tissues Cataphoresis Positive + pole Produces acidic reactions Closes the pores Soothes nerves Decreases blood supply Contracts blood vessels Hardens and firms tissues
Caution!! Do not use negative galvanic current on skin with broken capillaries or pustular acne conditions, or on a client with high blood pressure or metal implants!!
Faradic • Alternating current; produces mechanical effect; stimulates nerve and muscle tissue. • Improved blood circulation, muscle tone, stimulation of hair growth, increased glandular activity. • Today it is primarily used to improve muscle tone.
Sinusoidal • Alternating current • Mechanical effect • Penetrates deeper than faradic • Greater Stimulation – causes muscle contractions • Should never be used on unhealthy or broken skin.
Tesla • High-frequency current “violet ray” • Alternating current – produces a vibrating effect making this a stimulating current. • Different voltages produce heat • Can offer stimulation or relaxation • Improved blood circulation • Increased rate of metabolism • Increased sebaceous gland activity • Relieves Congestion Faradic, Sinusoidal and Telsa are all alternating currents (AC).