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Jo’s Journeys wants you to take a trip back in time to…. The Snowball Earth!. Cenozoic Era Quaternary Period Ice Ages Focus.
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Jo’s Journeys wants you to take a trip back in time to… The Snowball Earth! Cenozoic Era Quaternary Period Ice Ages Focus
Travel back in time with us to a period that began 2.588 million years ago and continues to the present day…A time when glacial periods had a great effect on our Earth (mostly in the northern hemisphere)…And a time when there were warm, even tropical inter-glacial periods.
Ice, Snow (Precipitation) Water Freezing & Thawing
Possible reasons for Ice Ages: Fainter early sun Biological changes Variations in Earth’s orbit There is evidence of more than 4 major glacial events and up to 40 smaller glaciations during the Quaternary Period – each lasting about 100,000 years.
Glacial intrusion on North America stretches down to around 40 degrees latitude.
The good news is…there should be no fear of moving too far due to Continental Drift.The continents have moved less than 100 km during this period.
So what do we know? • During this period there is flooding, freezing & thawing ice, rising and falling seas, land bridges that form and disappear, lakes and bays form. • Lots of activity happens during this period. Wouldn’t you like to say you witnessed it first hand?
Take in the sights and smells of our “Continental Gardens” where you will find (based on your vacation location): • Coniferous & deciduous trees • Bushes and shrubs • Flowering Plants (angiosperms) • Ferns • Grasses • Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts
Megafauna are massive mammals that roam during this period – becoming extinct as the last Ice Age ends. See the megafauna up close and personal! Mammals during this period are larger and grew thicker coats to help them survive. Though very large, most of these large mammals are plant-eaters that feed on shrubs & grasses on the edges of the ice sheets. These massive animals will become extinct as the climate warms. (It is also believed that humans may have over-hunted them.)
Mastodons & woolly mammoths are some of the massive mammals around during this time.
Other animals you may encounter on land are: • Bison • Oxen • Cave bears • Saber-toothed cats • Some birds are over 7 feet tall! • Beavers that are over 7 feet long! • Elephants • Modern rhinoceroses • Hippos • Modern birds • Insects
Should you SCUBA dive to take in the underwater sights, you may see the following in Earth’s seas… • Whales • Giant sharks • Otters • Seals • Giant fish • Modern fish • Squid • Crustaceans • Mollusks • Urchins • Plankton • Coral
Let’s not forget, the Quaternary Period is also called, “Age of Humans.” • Homo erectus appeared in Africa during the Cenozoic Era at the start of this period. • They eventually develop bigger brains and more intelligence. (This means they can think and solve problems!) • Modern humans spread out to Europe, Asia and then on to Australia and the Americas. • The future of our planet will be greatly affected by the Age of Humans!
Extreme Temperatures Rising & Falling Water Levels Massive Mammals There is a limited supply of plant material in areas affected by glaciations. This trip is not recommended for vegetarians.
Other Significant Dangers Icefalls Rock falls
Accommodations Travel accommodations will be made by “Ice Walkers.” We’ll show you the way to get there today!
You will be staying in our exclusive “Ice House Hotel” designed with your needs in mind.
Should you choose to stay longer and notice the ice beginning to thaw all around you, you may need to stay in one of our hand-made huts.Yes, I said “hand-made.”Our huts are made of sturdy mammoth tusks, warm woolly fur, and are guaranteed to protect you from the outside cold.
Things you’ll need to make your stay more pleasant: • Extra warm winter coat and warm clothing • Ear muffs/hat • Solid walking shoes and boots • Umbrella/rain gear • Blankets/sleeping bags (if making your own camp) • Hunting/fishing gear/clubs (for defense) • Mountain-climbing gear • Ice pick • Rope • Fire-starter logs • Axe • Bug spray • Baskets for hunting/gathering food • Lighter clothing for more tropical conditions • after ice age ends
The Quaternary Period Our trip has even been the focus of an article in TIME magazine.