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Mena Water Outlook, Part II

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Mena Water Outlook, Part II

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  1. Consultative Workshop on Desalination andRenewableEnergyBridgingtheWater Demand Gap: DesalinationDr. Fulya Verdier, Dr. Rudolf BatenFichtner GmbH & Co.KGMuscat, Oman 22-23 February 2011 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  2. Mena Water Outlook, Part II • Study objectives • Identification of water gap • Potential of solar powered desalination to bridge the gap • Study approach • Key criteria for technology selection • Basic features of selected desalination technologies • Definition of typical plants • Current water situation in the countries of the MENA region • Expected water gap in until 2050 • Costs of desalinated water • Potential of CSP to supply the required energy (separate presentation) • Energy needs for desalination in the MENA region by country • Focus on renewable energy sources - more specifically on CSP • Implementation scenario • Definition of typical plants • Potential of CSP to supply the required energy • Cost estimates 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  3. Desalination & CSP • Main driversfornewdesalinationprojects • Extent of water gap • Financial strength of country (e.g. % of GDP spent for desalination) • Experience with existing desalination facilities • Attractiveness to investors (political stability) • Development aid • Main driversfornew CSP projects • Peaking energy prices and undesired dependency on fossil fuel • Limited availability of fossil fuel sources • Reduction of carbon footprint • Attractiveness to investors (political stability) • Government incentives and regulations 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  4. Desalination & CSP • Key considerationsfordesalinationplants • MED, MSF and SWRO desalination technologies are well-proven • Significant improvements achieved (i.e. energy efficiency) • Capital and energy intensive • Footprint of secondary importance • Key considerations CSP plants • CSP still in development status, including storage capacities • Operational constraints due to limited solar radiation, back-up required • Capital and energy intensive • Footprint significant • Is CSP the bottleneck? 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  5. Desalination & CSP • Design constraintsfordesalinationplants • Desalination plants are best operated at base load mode • Design constraintsfor CSP plants • Variable steam supply from CSP depending on solar irradiance (day/night) • Fossil-fired back-up power plant • Expensive heat storage • Maximum live steam temperature is 370°C (compared to 480-560°C) • Relative large footprint, especially for higher Solar Multiple (SM) Plants • Largest CSP capacity to date ~ 100 MWe 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  6. MED: Working principle of an MED unit 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  7. MED: Processflowdiagramof a 14 effect MED unit 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  8. MED: Key design considerations (I) • Capacity • Unit production capacity (current maxium: 38,000 m³/d) • Number of duty / standby units • Energy demand • Electrical energy demand (1.5 to 2.5 kWh/m³) • Heat demand (order of magnitude: 70 kWh/m³) • Steam demand calls for cogeneration of water and power • Temperature profile • Temperature of heating steam (upper process temperature) • Seawater temperature (lower process temperature) • Number of effects (performance ratio) 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  9. MED: Key design considerations (II) • Durability • Plant availability and service time • Material selection (e.g. Titanium tubes in top rows and alu brass tubes in below rows) • Operational features • Robust in regard to seawater salinity and bio-fouling potential • High distillate quality • Supplier market • Major MED Suppliers: SIDEM (Veolia); others are following 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  10. MED: One of 12 Fujairah F2 IWPP 38,640 m³/d MED Units 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  11. SWRO: Working principleof a spiral woundmodule Feed at high pressure (100%) Concentrate at high pressure( ≈ 60%) Permeate atlow pressure (≈ 40%) Source: Dr.ir. S.G.J. Heijman, nanofiltrationandreverseosmosis,http://ocw.tudelft.nl/fileadmin/ocw/courses/DrinkingWaterTreatment1/res00053/embedded/!4e616e6f66696c74726174696f6e20616e642072657665727365206f736d6f736973.pdf, accessed on 20110218 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  12. SWRO: RO sectionoftheSingapore 136,000 m³/d Plant 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  13. SWRO: Key design considerations (I) • Operational features • Large membrane area and narrow flow cross section cause susceptibility to bio-fouling • Pre-treatment process to be adopted to the seawater conditions • Seawater salinity and temperature affect the power demand • No perfect salt rejection – usually a second pass required • Energy • Electrical energy demand (order of magnitude: 4 kWh/m³) • Absence of heat demand allows for stand alone configuration • Method of energy recovery (Pelton turbine, turbocharger or isobaric system) 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  14. SWRO: Key design considerations (II) • Capacity and plant design • Plant capacity (current maximum: 500,000 m³/d) • Modularity allows a high number of process configurations (e.g. train or centre design) • Durability • Plant availability and service time • Material selection (e.g. super duplex for high pressure section) • Supplier market • Major Suppliers: Befesa, Cobra/Tedagua, Degremont (Suez), GE, Hyflux, IDE, OTV (Veolia) 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  15. SWRO: Flow diagram of a typical SWRO process Source: Victorian Desalination Project 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  16. SWRO: ArtistsviewoftheHamma (Algeria) 200,000 m³/d plant Source: IDA Yearbook 2008 - 2009 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  17. Desalination Market Cumulative capacity put online in and outside the GCC countries 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  18. Desalination Market Online Desalination Capacitysortedbytechnologyanddailycapacity 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  19. Desalination Market • Forecast Contracted Capacity by Technology (2006-2016) 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  20. Desalination Market Additional Desalination Capacity (2008-2016), 12 MENA countries in TOP 20 ! 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  21. Study Approach Desalination & CSP Potential Assessment Water Demand & Availability DATA TECHNOLOGY Solar & Land Assessment Desalination CSP + InstalledCapacities Water Power TYPICAL PLANTS => Number & Location in MENA Region Potential Desalination CSP 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  22. Desalinated Water-Share in MENA Water Resources andWaterWithdrawals (1960-2010) Waterscarcity 1000 m³/cap/yr Source: FAO: Aquastat 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  23. Technology Screening 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  24. Plant Configurations • Dual-purpose plant (MED-CSP) located at coast with seawater cooling • Stand-alone plant with RO located at coast and CSP located in inland with air cooling Source: DLR, 2007 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  25. Key Study Features Seawater Quality 3 macro-regions Desalination Process MED / SWRO Product Water Quality TDS < 200 mg/l Potable SWRO MED LARGE 200,000 m³/d Industrial Irrigation MEDIUM 100,000 m³/d MEDIUM 100,000 m³/d Mediterranean Gulf Red Sea SMALL 20,000 m³/d Increasingseawater TDS & temp. 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  26. MED Typical Plant Design (1) Considering potential futuredevelopments 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  27. MED Typical Plant Requirements Energy requirement (1) Including seawater pumping, evaporation, post-treatment without potable water pumping (2) Based on seawater at 28°C and final condensation at 38°C Area requirement 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  28. MED TypicalPlants Fujairah F2 MED SWRO Hybrid Plant, UAE 464,600 m³/d Source: SIDEM 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  29. SWRO Typical Plant Design 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  30. SWRO Typical Plant: EnergyRequirement 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  31. SWRO Design: Area Requirement 1) FF1 includingopen gravity filters 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  32. Evaluation Cases • 4 evaluation cases are conducted in all macro-regions: • MED-CSP at coast with seawater cooling  • SWRO and CSP at coast with seawater cooling  • SWRO at coast and CSP inland with air cooling  • SWRO at cost, CSP inland with “solar only” operation and air cooling 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  33. CAPEX & OPEX Key Cost Data - Typical Plants 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  34. CAPEX & OPEX Cost Distribution – MED Typical Plant Mediterranean DNI 2400 kWh/m²/yr Fuel NG Arabian Gulf DNI 2400 kWh/m²/yr Fuel NG 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  35. CAPEX & OPEX Cost Distribution – SWRO Typical Plant Mediterranean DNI 2400 kWh/m²/yr Fuel NG Arabian Gulf DNI 2400 kWh/m²/yr Fuel NG 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  36. Evaluation Cases • 4 evaluation cases are conducted in all macro-regions: • MED-CSP at coast with seawater cooling  • SWRO and CSP at coast with seawater cooling  • SWRO at coast and CSP inland with air cooling  • SWRO at cost, CSP inland with “solar only” operation and air cooling For the electricity generation by CSP plant • DNI classes: 2000 / 2400 / 2800 kWh/m²/y • Fossil fuel options: Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) / Natural Gas (NG) • Electricity mix for “solar only” option 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  37. LevelizedWaterCostsby MED Mediterranean Red Sea Gulf 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  38. LevelizedWaterCostsby SWRO Gulf Mediterranean Red Sea Source: NETL 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  39. BridgingtheWater Gap in MENA Water supply (MCM/y) based on within the average climate change scenario for MENA 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  40. BridgingtheWater Gap in MENA Excerpt: OMAN *Reference desalination plant capacity: 100,000 m³/d 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  41. BridgingtheWater Gap in MENA Excerpt: SAUDI ARABIA *Reference desalination plant capacity: 100,000 m³/d 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  42. BridgingtheWater Gap in MENA Excerpt: LIBYA *Reference desalination plant capacity: 100,000 m³/d 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  43. BridgingtheWater Gap in MENA Excerpt: MOROCCO *Reference desalination plant capacity: 100,000 m³/d 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1

  44. Conclusions • Desalination has the potential to close the water gap (basically) • Limitations may arise from environmental and financial aspects • In most evaluation cases, SWRO appears more favorable, however certain circumstances may call for MED • Energy is the major cost item for desalinated water • Future developments of electricity cost will highly influence water production costs 6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1