SSUSH4 The student will identify the ideological, military, and diplomatic aspects of the American Revolution. c. Analyze George Washington as a military leader; include the creation of a professional military and the life of a common soldier, and describe the significance of the crossing of the Delaware River and Valley Forge.
George Washington • The Continental Army was formed mostly out of loosely trained local militias which surrounded Boston. It was inexperienced, poorly equipped, and poorly trained • In 1775, George Washington was appointed as the general and commander in chief by the Second Continental Congress How would you describe the conditions for the average soldier in the Continental Army? Under these conditions, would you reenlist?
Crossing the Delaware Most armies of the time didn’t fight during the winter because of the poor weather conditions, and scarcity of food On December 25th 1776, Washington, needing a victory to convince many of his soldiers to reenlist, crosses the Delaware River into NJ and captures almost 1,000 British troops and their supplies What might have happened if Washington’s attack had failed?
Valley Forge, Pennsylvania After the British capture Philadelphia in September 1777, Washington takes his troops into winter quarters at Valley Forge Poorly equipped and supplied, the cold, food shortages, and diseases, kill nearly 2,500 men
Valley Forge, Pennsylvania "The unfortunate soldiers were in want of everything; they had neither coats nor hats, nor shirts, nor shoes. Their feet and their legs froze until they were black, and it was often necessary to amputate them." Marquis de Lafayette 1778 The Marquis de Lafayette joined Washington at Valley Forge and helped train the army. He also helped convince the French to send more aid to the Americans.
Yorktown, Virginia • In April 1781, British forces led by General Cornwallis invade Virginia • Cornwallis moves his troops to Yorktown in order to gain supplies and keep a line of communication open by sea Though moving his army to Yorktown to get easily supplied by the British navy seemed like a good decision, why might moving your army onto a peninsula be a bad idea?
Yorktown Washington took the opportunity to march from NY to Yorktown with a combined American and French army The French navy sailed up from the Caribbean to block supplies from reaching Cornwallis’ army and to cut off his ability to escape by sea
Yorktown • In September 1781 American and French forces surround Yorktown and begin to attack Cornwallis’ army • After almost 3 weeks of constant bombardment, the 8,000 man British army surrenders • The surrender at Yorktown signaled the end of the war for the British What role did the French play in defeating the British?
The Treaty of Paris, 1783 • Signed in September 1783, the Treaty: • Recognized the United States as a new nation, setting it’s western border at the Mississippi River • Gave Florida back to Spain, and gave the French several colonies in Africa and the Caribbean
Creating the United States Constitution • The Great Compromise: settled how states would be represented in the new government, setting up the House of Representatives, which appeased the larger states, and the Senate, which appealed to the smaller states How are states represented in the Senate? Why would this appeal to the smaller states? The Great Compromise was a merger of the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan
Separation of Powers: Created the 3 branches of government to prevent the concentration of power and provide for checks and balances • Legislative: made up of the 2 houses of Congress, would make the laws • Executive: headed by the president, would implement and enforce the laws passed by Congress • Judicial: a system of federal courts, would interpret the laws
Three-Fifths Compromise • A solution to the slavery representation issue was reached with the Three-Fifths Compromise • Every five enslaved people would be counted as three free persons for taxes and representation in the House
A New Government • After a long debate and voting process, the Constitution was approved • 1stPrez: Washington • The Electoral College • First Actions • Bill of Rights • Create a cabinet • Two of key members of Washington’s cabinet were Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton
Washington’s Foreign Policy • During the French Revolution, France declared war on England: the United States was divided over who to support • Proclamation of Neutrality In 1793, Washington declared that the US would be “friendly and impartial” towards both countries • The British however, began seizing American ships headed to French ports
Washington’s Cabinet • His cabinet, or his advisers, worked with George Washington to put this new government into place • Now that we have the Constitution, how is it going to be implemented? • That is the question that Washington and his • advisors had to address… • The first major problem: DEBT! • EVERYONE in the Cabinet supported one solution, the Tariff of 1789 • Tariff = tax on imports
Washington’s Cabinet • The other solutions were offered by Washington’s Treasury Secretary (a member of his cabinet), Alexander Hamilton • Hamilton’s plan • Issue bonds- loans for the federal government • Create a National Bank • Tax the production of whiskey
Whiskey Rebellion • 1791 - Congress imposed a direct tax on the manufacture of whiskey • Western farmers, the main manufactures of whiskey, rebelled against the tax in 1794 • Washington orders 15,000 troops to put down the rebellion • The rebels disperse without fighting, ending the rebellion
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t1_s0eWbaYI Hamilton’s Opponents • The whiskey tax was not the only part of Hamilton’s plan that angered people • Many people WITHIN Washington’s Cabinet opposed Hamilton’s suggestions • Thomas Jefferson • James Madison • Thomas Jefferson was very OUTSPOKEN against Hamilton’s ideas • This conflict within the cabinet was the foundation for political parties in America
The First 2 Presidents • Washington leaves office after his 2nd term-he warns against political parties and foreign alliances • Federalist John Adams is elected the 2nd President of the U.S.
John Adams • First President to identify with a political party • FEDERALIST • Tension developed during his presidency with France • created a quasi-war, but negotiations ended tension • Lost the election of 1800 to Thomas Jefferson, a Republican