PART II Indian Country Myths Quiz Statistics History and contemporary issues
Indian Country with Jimmy Warne, MS
MYTHS QUIZ TRUE/FALSE 1. Native Americans are easily identified by physical features, body shape, and skin and hair coloring. 2. Native Americans are alcoholics. 3. Native Americans don’t pay taxes. 4. There are over 700 tribes and over 200 languages currently. 5. Native Americans have the highest percentage (per capita) of people with disabilities. 6. All Tribes have seen a 50% increase in income/benefits due to casino revenue. 7. Around half of all Native Americans receive their H.S. diploma. 8. Native Americans learn and communicate differently. 9. All Native American people receive monthly or annual U.S. government checks. 10. 75% of all Native Americans reside on reservations.
MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Members of Tribal Nations prefer to be identified as: a.) Native American b.) American Indians c.) Indigenous people of the Americas d.) First Americans/First Nations e.) All of the above f.) None of the above 2. Native Americans were “permitted” to practice their spiritual ceremonies and belief system when: a.) Indian Religion Treaty of 1887 was signed. b.) American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1932 was enacted. c.) American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978 was enacted. d.) Native Americans have always been free to practice spiritual life style.
The top ten reservations with the largest number of American Indians Top ten states with the Highest American Indian Population 1. Navajo (AZ, NM, UT) 2. Pine Ridge (SD) 3. Fort Apache (AZ) 4. Gila River (AZ) 5. Tohono O’odaham 6. Rosebud (SD) 7. San Carlos (AZ) 8. Zuni Pueblo (NM) 9. Hopi (AZ) 10. Blackfeet (Montana) • Oklahoma 252,420 • California 242,164 • Arizona 203,527 • New Mexico 134,355 • Alaska 85,698 • Washington 81,483 • North Carolina 80,155 • Texas 65,877 • New York 62,651 • Michigan 55,638
Statistics • American Indians have highest poverty rate in the U.S. • Twice as likely to be unemployed as general population • Males nearly 3 times rate unemployed • Females more than 2 times rate unemployed • Twice as likely to live in poverty as general population; • 3 times as likely as Euro American population
Dependency Alcoholism death rate AIAN populations (for 15-24 year olds is 17 times the national average By age 12 prevalence rates for almost every substance are higher for AIAN youth Nearly one in 5 Indian youth are involved with drugs to an extent that represents a serious danger to themselves
Suicide and Violence • Average suicide rate for AIAN is 70% greater than general population • Suicide and homicide are are the 2nd and 3rd leading causes of death for Indian youth 15-24 • Violent crime average (per 1,000): AIAN (124), Euro American (49) African American (61), Asian (29) • 70% of crimes against AIAN committed by different race • 70% of AIAN convicted of a violent crime were under the influence
Oppression • Unjust or cruel exercise of authority or power • Removal - must remove population to acquire land • Treaties - most were broken by U.S. government • Reservations - originally concentration camps • Forced religion - AI Religious Freedom Act of 1978 • Boarding schools - Take the Indian out of the child • Allotment Act - “Indian Lands” • Relocation & Termination - 1950’s and 1960’s • Assimilate - 1890-1990 Tribal to American culture • The oppressed will oppress themselves (scouts, current)
Definitions of Dysfunction (see notes below) • Impairment: An abnormality of structure or function • The impairment may be congenital (existing from birth) or acquired after birth • It can be caused by prenatal or postnatal genetic factors, disease, accident, injury, trauma, drugs, age, noise, anoxia, malformations, etc • Disability: Functional consequence of the impairment • Physical and/or mental functional consequences that limits an individual from performing a given task or activity
Definitions of Dysfunction (see notes below) • Handicap: Social consequence of the impairment • Isolation, loss of job, poor social/communication skills • * Terms introduced by World Health Organization NOTE: Handicap: is a term originating from England referring to people with disabilities that would beg in the streets with their caps in hand. Not a positive reference.
5 Factors • Current research indicates that there are five primary contributors to disparities in health status and outcomes for Native Americans. • It must be observed that these factors are not beyond the influence of racial bias and discrimination, either systemic or individual.
5 Factors The five factors include: 1. Poor access to health insurance, including Medicaid, Medicare, and private insurance. 2. Insufficient federal funding. 3. Quality of care issues. 4. Limited access to appropriate health facilities. 5. Disproportionate poverty and poor education.
1492 Tribal Members 20,000,000 Indian land 100% 1492-1890 Indian Wars Revolution Civil War 1890 Tribal Members 250,000 Indian land 14% Today Tribal Members 2,000,000 (+) Indian land 4% Colonialism, Genocide, Holocaust?
Contemporary Issues How is Indian Country today? • Casino Revenue for Indian Country • Cultural Diversity - understanding/acceptance • Education and Human Services • Health and Disability • Reservation vs Urban Indian Issues