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Behavior Therapy

Behavior Therapy

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Behavior Therapy

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  1. Behavior Therapy Foundations and Application

  2. Historical background • Emerged in 1950s • Stemmed from scientific empiricism • Pavlov (classical conditioning) • Skinner (operant conditioning) • Bandura (Social Learning Theory) • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy • Focuses on observable behavior, effect of environment on behavior, learning experiences, and assessment

  3. Classical conditioning (Pavlov) • Pavlov’s theories were based on his work with salivating dogs. • For more info: • John Watson & “Little Albert” Ethical????? Please check out this video: • Mowrer and Mowrer (1938): Bedwetting

  4. Operant Conditioning (also known as “instrumental conditioning”) • Whereas Classical Conditioning focuses on the antecedents of behavior, Operant Conditioning focuses on antecedents AND consequences of behavior. • B.F. Skinner is the “guru” of this theory: • Early work by Thorndike bridged the gap between CC and OC

  5. Social Learning Theory(Albert Bandura, et. al) • Social learning theories focus on the study of covert behaviors such as physiological responses, thinking, and feeling. • Cognitive-behavioral theories began to consider both covert and overt behaviors • The story of “Peter”

  6. the role of thoughts and images in social and psychological functioning a triadic, reciprocal relationship between environment, personal factors, and behavioral actions. Key to learning is observation The self-system (triad) regulates behavior Concept of self-efficacy, accomplishing tasks, belief that one can succeed Bandura (1960’s) proposed and emphasized:

  7. Current Status of Behavior Therapy • Has been applied to a great number of areas (business, hospital, athletic performance, education, etc.) • Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy (4000+ members)

  8. Based on principles of the scientific method (systematic, specific) Deals with the client’s current problems (not past) Clients must engage in specific actions to change behavior. Goal-setting & modeling are key tasks Counseling is largely educational and occurs in client’s environment. Procedures are tailored to client’s needs (personal) Collaborative partnership between client & therapist Behavior Therapy: Basic Characteristics

  9. Behavior Therapy: Major Concepts • Positive Reinforcement (widely used) • Extinction (also punishment) • Generalization - when behavior is reinforced, it may generalize to other behavior • Discrimination - The ability to react differently, depending upon the stimulus condition that is presented (e.g., traffic lights)

  10. View of human nature • Internal locus of control • Product of environment • Therapy looks to increase freedom to improve life situations

  11. Basic assumptions • Scientific method • Focus on present problems • Client is active • Self management • Assessing problems and change • Self-management • Practical interventions

  12. Goals • Client defines goals • Determine behavioral changes • Therapist constantly monitors • Therapist is active, directive, and problem solver • Relationship important primarily to influence compliance with tasks

  13. Techniques and interventions • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement • Extinction • Punishment • Generalization • Scaling • Relaxation training • Modeling

  14. Five functions of basic modeling: teaching, prompting, motivating, reducing anxiety, and discouraging. Live modeling Symbolic modeling (e.g., videos, films, photos, etc.) Role playing Participant modeling: therapist models, then has patient follow Covert modeling: using imagination to visualize a behavior Often used to rehearse “assertiveness” skills Behavioral Techniques: Modeling

  15. Techniques, continued… • Systematic desensitization • In vivo • Flooding • EMDR • Assertion training • Self-management (self reward, self monitoring, self control, setting goals)

  16. 1. Teach client relaxation responses 2. Events that make the client anxious are assessed and arranged by degree of anxiety (SUDs) 3. Have client imagine anxiety-evoking situations while being relaxed. 4. Repeat in a gradual manner so that relaxation is paired with anxiety-provoking event. Client is “systematically” desensitized to situations that created anxiety. Behavioral Techniques: Systematic Desensitization

  17. Behavioral Techniques: In Vivo Therapies • Occurs in client’s actual environment • May be gradual (SD) or direct (flooding) • Anytime client becomes tense, relaxation procedures are performed. • Advance from one step to the other occurs when client is comfortable. • Client will progress to performing behavior on his/her own

  18. Self-Management & Self-Directed Behavior • Select a goal • Translate goal into target behavior • Self-monitor (e.g. behavior diary) • Work out a plan for change • Self-reinforce • Self-contract • Evaluate the plan

  19. Multimodal therapy (Lazarus) • Technical eclecticism • BASIC ID • Breadth more important than depth (Corey, 2005) • Teaches skills, coping, and flexibility

  20. As an action approach, is consistent with meeting needs of culturally diverse populations Cross-cultural knowledge is helpful in understanding behavior. Suggestions: 1. Counselor should be aware of culture-specific ideas of what constitutes deviant behavior 2. Knowledge of cultural roles is useful; consider what is culturally appropriate to reinforce BT & Multicultural Issues

  21. Positives • Concrete and structured • Focused on change • Emphasizes research based approaches • Many techniques • Suited to short term • Effective with anxiety disorders

  22. Critiques • Limited focus on feelings • Relational factors • No insight • Only treats symptoms • Issues of power and control