GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD • DIRECT METHOD • AUDIOLINGUALISM • COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING • TASK BASED LANGUAGE TEACHING -
Grammar translationmethod was used in teaching Greek and Latin. Direct methodreflects naturalistic principles of language learning.
GTM ; maintains close association between the foreign language and the mother tongue.(translation) • Direct Method; avoids close association between the target language and the mother tongue.
GTMlays emphasis on reading and writing. • Direct Methodlays emphasis on speaking.
GTM; vocabulary is taught. (by memorization) • Grammar rules • A list of vocabulary • Translation exercises • Direct Method: Everyday • vocabulary is taught. • (by actions, pictures, realia, association of ideas.)
GTM follows the adult’s natural way of learning language. • Direct method • follows the child’s • natural way of • learning language.
GTM teaches the language by “rule” not by“use”. ( deductively) • Direct Method teaches the language by “use” not by “rule”. (inductively)
GTM lasted for a hundred year although it has no theory. • Direct method was only successful in private schools
GTM Teacher is the authority Students are the ones who will do what the teacher asks DM The teacher only directs the class activities. Students are less passive.
Examples from course booksVocabulary • Match the words and pictures Player Referee Runner Spectator Goal keeper (Whitney, Norman, Open doors, Student’s book, 1994, page 48)
Exercises of Grammar Translation Method • Vocabulary ( vokebyuleri) by (bay) : ile paint ( peynt): boyamak answer ( ansır): cevap vermek • Açıklama: ingilizcede fiiller üç halde bulunur. 1)present 2) past 3) past participle parça
Exercises of Direct Method • Fill in the blanks with ‘ will or won’t ’ will you be home before six o’clock? • we’ re really busy,so we……go out tonight. • There aren’t any sandwiches left, so I…..have a biscuit parça
Audiolingual is an oral-based approach known as Army Method. • CLTis an approach to the teaching of second and foreign languages that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning a language.
THEORY OF LANGUAGE AUDIOLINGUAL • structural view • speech is language CLT • Language is ‘communication’. • Goal: “communicative competence” • four dimensions - grammatical - strategic - sociolinguistic - discourse
THEORY OF LANGUAGE LEARNING AUDIOLINGUAL • Behaviorism • language learning is habit-formation • mistakes are bad and should be avoided, as they make bad habits
CLT Theory of learning • There are some principles that may be inferred from CLT practices. • Communication principle • Task principle • Meaningfulness principle
Exercises of Audiolingualism • mechanical drill • Listen and Repeat
Communicative drill Answer these questions • What did I tell you to do before we began the new lesson? • What do your parents often ask you to do on?
Read the dialogue. Then act out the dialogue.Library, supermarket, next to, behind, turn right/left, on the left/right. • John: excuse me. Can you help me please? • Mr. Hard: Yes, of course how can I help you? • John: I don’t know the town well and ı am lost. • Mr Hard: Where do you want to go? • John: To the railway station • Mr Hard: Go straight on turn right at the corner. It is on your left. • John: Thank you very much. • Mr.Hard: You’re wellcome.
TASK-BASED LANGUAGE TEACHING • Task-Based Language Teaching or TBLT is an approach based on the use of task’s as the main unit of planning and instruction in language teaching.
What is a task? A task is An activity or action which calls for learners to use languagewith the emphasis on meaning, to attain an objective.
Task? or Exercise? • Task meaning- focused language use • Exercise form- focused language use
Key assumptions • Process rather than product • Activities and tasks emphasizing communication and meaning • Learning language by interaction • Real world and pedagogical tasks • Task based syllabus sequenced according to difficult
FOUR MAJOR CATEGORIES OF TEAM PERFORMANCE FUNCTION • Orientation Functions • Organizational • Adaptation functions • Motivational functions
THEORY OF LANGUAGE • Language is primarily a means of making meaning • Multiple models of language inform TBI • Lexical units are central in language use and language learning • Conversation is the central focus of language and keystone of language acquisition.
Theory of Learning • Task Provide both the input and output processing necessary for language acquisition. • Task activity and achievement are motivational. • Learning difficulty can be negotiated and fine tuned for particular pedagogical purposes.
Card A You are a student. You want your friend to help you with some homework. A Check if B is busy. B __________________ A Ask her/him to help you. B __________________ A Try to persuade her/him. B __________________ Card B You are a student. Your friend wants you to help him/her with homework. You are not keen. A ________________ B Tell her/ him you are not doing anything. A ________________ B Refuse. Give a reason. A _______________ B Agree reluctantly. Examples from course books
Examples from course books • Task 2: In groups, make a list of the advantages and disadvantages of cars. (Whitney Norman Open Doors, Student’s Book, 1994, Oxford University Press,17)
Conclusion • Judging from the coursebooks we have examined we have seen that nearly all the approaches and methods are used for different purposes and needs. As teachers we should analyse our learners’ needs and choose right approaches and methods.