Chapter 12 Surviving & Thriving in the Workplace - Leadership
Leadership • Influencing others to voluntarily accept and pursue goals and challenges that may be difficult, but which are in accord with both the values of both the leader and the followers.
Trait Theory: The Great Person Theory of Leadership • Leadership is based on a constellation of personal characteristics. • High on • Extraversion • Openness to experience • Conscientiousness
Six Characteristics of Leaders • High levels of drive (achievement motivation, ambition, energy, tenacity, initiative) • Achievement motivation likes challenging tasks • Ambition sets goals to push itself • Energy & tenacity allow long work-hours and persistence in the face of obstacles • Initiative is a proactive approach that anticipates and avoids problems and has the courage to make changes
Six Characteristics of Leaders • Leadership Motivation • The desire to influence others • The desire to accept the responsibility of power • Being comfortable in giving directions • Providing and implementing consequences for success or failure
Six Characteristics of Leaders • Honesty & Integrity • Open and clear communication • Consistency between what a person says and does • (This may be the most important component.)
Six Characteristics of Leaders • Self-confidence • A strong belief in one’s self and one’s ideas • Emotional stability to remain calm and composed in difficult and challenging circumstances
Six Characteristics of Leaders • Above-average Intelligence • Need to process large amounts of information • Need to process quickly • Need to make sound decisions based on critical analysis
Six Characteristics of Leaders • A great deal of expertise in their field
Interactionist Theories of Leadership • Great leaders emerge from circumstances that combine an individual with leadership potential and certain situational factors • (Being in the right place at the right time.) • Different types of leaders are effective in different types of situations.
Fiedler’s Contingency Model of Leadership • Task-oriented leaders • Most concerned with productivity • Focus on providing direction and instruction • Relationship-oriented leaders • More concerned with morale • Focus on building good interpersonal relationships and positive feelings among staff members
Fiedler’s Contingency Model of Leadership • Situational Control • Leader’s degree of power • Leader’s relationship with staff members • Clarity of the task
Fiedler’s Contingency Model of Leadership • High situational control • Leader is a true authority figure with legitimate power and a positive relationship with staff members and a clearly-defined task. • Low situational control • Leader has little power and is not well-liked by the staff, and the task is unclear. • Moderate situational control • One or two of these factors is high and the other one or two is low
Fiedler’s Contingency Model of Leadership • USE TASK-ORIENTED LEADERSHIP WHEN: • Poor leader-staff relationships & unclear task • Good leader-staff relationships & clear task • Good leader-staff relationships & unclear task only if the leader is powerful • USE PERSON-ORIENTED LEADERSHIP WHEN: • Good leader-staff relationships, unclear task, weak leader • Poor leader –staff relationships , clear structure
Hersey-Blanchard Model of Leadership • Follower readiness = staff expertise and general task motivation • Four categories of readiness • Stage 1: Don’t know what to do; can’t “jump right in” • Stage 2: Have general sense of the work and are willing to try; lack expertise to do well • Stage 3: Enough expertise to be overconfident and unwilling to listen to leader • Stage 4: Expert, confident, capable and willing
Hersey-Blanchard Leadership Styles • Telling • Selling • Participating • Delegating
Hersey-Blanchard Leadership Styles • Telling • Follower is inexperienced and needs clear instructions. • Leadership should be high task-oriented; Low relationship-oriented
Hersey-Blanchard Leadership Styles • Selling • Follower needs clear instructions and relational support, although has some experience • Leadership should be high task-oriented and high relationship-oriented
Hersey-Blanchard Leadership Styles • Paticipating • Follower has more experience, needs a mentor. • Leadership should be high relationship-oriented, low task-oriented
Hersey-Blanchard Leadership Styles • Delegating • Follower is expert and needs little or no instruction or relationship support • Leadership should be low task-oriented and low relationship-oriented
Consensus & Charismatic Leaders • Charismatic Leader • Engaging personality fuels his or her success • Inspires trust, loyalty & action • Emerges in times of crisis • Consensus leader • Succeeds based on centrist position and skills at mediation • Low-key moderate who follows popular opinion • Negotiates compromises & gains allies • Prevails in stable times
Transactional vs. Transformational Leadership • Transactional Leadership • Relies on relatively even exchanges between leader and follower • High-quality exchanges involve exchange of emotional resources such as loyalty and respect or mutual trust • Low-quality exchanges involve tradition economic or tangible resources such as money or status • Employees with high-quality exchanges are less likely to leave an organization than those with low • Effective at maintaining performance levels and job satisfaction in an ongoing organization (status quo)
Transactional vs. Transformational Leadership • Transformational Leadership • Relies on exchanges and the power of the leader to communicate his or her vision to the followers • The vision is typically consistent with a deeply-held set of leader values such as integrity or justice • Followers are energized and inspired and come to share the leader’s values. • Involves four types of leader behaviors.
Transactional vs. Transformational Leadership • Transformational Leadership • Idealized influence – high moral standards of the leader inspire admiration & loyalty in followers • Inspirational motivation – leader’s vision and ability to communicate it effectively & persuasively • Intellectual stimulation– leader role models & encourages followers to think creatively and to challenge existing norms • Individual consideration – leader’s attention to individual needs of followers and facilitation of their development