Conflict in the Middle East What is the cause of the ongoing problems in Israel & Palestine?
Zionism called for the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine Establishment of Israel • British come up with a plan called the Balfour Declaration that divided Palestine between Jews & Palestinians but WWII puts it on hold • 1947: UN approves a plan to divide Palestine into two nations • #1 Palestine = Arab State#2 Israel = Jewish State. Jerusalem controlled by UN • Palestinians & other Arab states object • May 1948: Israel declares statehood and takes their territory • Six Arab nations declare war on Israel • Israel wins the Arab-Israeli War, takes more territory • Palestinian people begin fleeing Israel & head to other Arab countries
Israel & the Cold War – Suez Canal Crisis • 1954: Gamel Abdel Nasser controls Egypt, 56: seizes British-controlled Suez Canal • Britain, France, Israel take back the canal & then occupy parts of Egypt – Nasser turns to the UN • Soviets say this is an example of western imperialism, Nasser seeks alliance with USSR • UN Security Council give Egypt canal & land back (US abstains) Six Day & Yom Kippur Wars • Israel & Arab countries fight two more wars, Egypt starts both: Six-Day War (1967, Nasser) & Yom Kippur War (1973, Sadat) • Each war Israel is backed by US & wins, Israel takes more Arab land. 1973: Arabs put an oil embargo on US because of support of Israel • Palestinians form the PLO, use intifada to get their homeland back • Intifada includes non-violent methods to protest but also uses Soviet made weapons to attack Israel. Israel responds by bombing Pal. towns