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FIRE - BLIGHT

FIRE - BLIGHT

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FIRE - BLIGHT

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  1. FIRE - BLIGHT Disease spread and control in Emilia-Romagna region Plant Protection Service

  2. History: 1994 Plant Protection Service

  3. History: 1995 Plant Protection Service

  4. History: 1996 Plant Protection Service

  5. History: 1997 Plant Protection Service

  6. History: 1998 Plant Protection Service

  7. History: 1999 Plant Protection Service

  8. Present situation Plant Protection Service

  9. Host affected in 2000 Plant Protection Service

  10. Inspections: field monitoring • Pear • Apple • Quince • Medlar • Chess Apple • Hawthorn • Firethorn • Cotoneaster • Crete Hawthorn • Chinese Hawthorn • Orchards • Ornamental and wild plants • Nurseries Monitoring: field surveys carried out by Phytosanitary Inspectors and scout squads Plant Protection Service

  11. Inspections: Orchard mapping Farm mapping using GPS Manual mapping using paper maps Plant Protection Service

  12. Inspections: data store Scheda campione __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Monitoraggio straordinario Azienda _________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Verbale di constatazione __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Registro analisi __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Verbale di constatazione __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Monitoraggio straordinario Azienda _________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Registro analisi ______________ffgff__________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Validation and data insert in the Regional Information System of the Plant protection Service (FitoGis) Plant Protection Service

  13. Inspections: Data elaboration Specific software (ArcView, FitoMap) Themes overlaying (roads, rivers, farms etc.) on technical territorial maps (aerial photographs, satellites photographs, cartographic maps etc.) Elaboration (1 km radius areas, ecc.) Plant Protection Service

  14. Inspections: Data access GIS works on a LAN Server connected with inspector’s PC. Plant Protection Service

  15. Hail and fireblight in a fire blight free area (1996) the absolute number of cases considerably rises the year after that of hail event. This situation can be easily observed as long as the disease is not uniformly diffused (1999-2000). Plant Protection Service

  16. Main roads and fire-blight Disease incidence increasing with the closeness of the main roads may suggest that Erwinia amylovora locates preferentially where movements of tools, goods and people represents a better way of pathogen’s introduction and spread. Plant Protection Service

  17. Cougar-blight model and E.a. infections Plant Protection Service

  18. M.Decrees Forced Removal of affected plants (National decree) Limitation of bee-hive movements (National decree) Abrogation of ZP Passport (EU directive) Setting up of buffers zones (EU directive) Prohibition to plant Crataegus (Regional law) Setting up of saveguarded areas (Regional law) Money contributions For farms replacing affected plants with new healthy ones (Regional law) Authority Regional supervision Technical-Scientific Committee Supervision of experimentation and research Set up technical guidelines Divulgation Meetings Technical brochures Web-site Measures adopted Plant Protection Service

  19. Antibiotics Yes – Antibiotics No In Italy, antibiotic application in agriculture is forbidden due to: • Efficacy against E.a. is usually medium • Likely to develop resistant E.a. strains • Likely to develop other resistant phytopathogenic bacteria • Likely to develop resistant bacteria strains pathogens on human Plant Protection Service

  20. Copper compounds Phosetyl Alluminium Mancozeb+Copper Streptomycin Ca-Prohexadione BTH Chemical Control Plant Protection Service

  21. Research and experimentation • Aims • Improve knowledge about E.a. survival, dissemination ad evolutionin E.Romagna ecosystems. • Improve Integrated Production strategies • Verify the role of honey-bees in disease spread • Obtain new pear varieties tolerant to E.a. Plant Protection Service

  22. Integrated Production Strategies • Chemical control • Biological control • Verify the efficacy of growth regulator (Ca-Prohexadione) • Find relationship between E.a. infections and plant nutrition • Study SAR efficacy against fire-blight Plant Protection Service

  23. Efficacy of different a.i. on flower E.a. indoor infections • Check (H2O) • Firestop (200 g/hl) • Mancozeb+Cu (Dithane DG, 200g/hl + Copper Pro 50 wdg, 100 g/hl) • Streptomycin (10 g/hl) • Sprays were carried out 1 day before inoculation Plant Protection Service

  24. Efficacy of copper on E.a. Plant Protection Service

  25. Copper efficacy against fireblight Plant Protection Service

  26. Copper efficacy against fireblight Plant Protection Service

  27. Phyto-toxicity of copper on pear Plant Protection Service

  28. Phyto-toxicity of copper on pear Plant Protection Service

  29. Phyto-toxicity of copper on pear Plant Protection Service

  30. Efficacy of antagonistic bacteria on pear shoot infections Classes of Disease severity (G) class I: n = 0 (healthy shoots); class II: n  20% class III: n 20%  n  50 %; class IV: 50%  n  70 % class V: 70%  n  100% Plant Protection Service

  31. Efficacy of Ca-Prohexadione on induced e.a. infections Disease incidence and severity in indoor trial on Cv Abbée Fétél Disease incidence in field trial on Cv Abbée Fétél Plant Protection Service

  32. Plant nutrition and fire blight • check (H2O);; • irrigation reduced 50% compared with check (water stress); • irrigation with 0.72 g/l di NaCl + 0.7 g di CaCl2 (25 meq/l that is 2.1 mmho cm-1); • irrigation with 1.45 g/l di NaCl + 1.4 g di CaCl2 (50 meq/l, that is 4.2 mmho cm-1); • irrigation with 2.9 g/l di NaCl + 2.8 g di CaCl2 (100 meq/l, that is 8.3 mmho cm-1); • fertilization with 8 g di N e 4 g di K at the beginning of the season. Plant Protection Service

  33. Efficacy of BTH on induced E.a. infections Efficacy of BTH on E.a. infections at different time of application Plant Protection Service

  34. Guidelines: bud break • Field Surveys • Orchard monitoring to verify canker activity • Organ affected should be removed and burned • Chemical sprays • 1-2 copper sprays (150-200 Cu g/hl) • Agricultural practices • Avoid nitrogen fertilization • Irrigation allowed Plant Protection Service

  35. Guidelines: blossom to petal fall • Field Surveys • Orchard monitoring to spot symtoms on flowers • Chemical sprays • Follow extension service’s recommendations (forecasting models) • Agricultural practices • Avoid plant growth regulators (NAA and CCC) • Irrigation allowed • Do not exced nitrogen dosages and application time recommended • Avoid pruning Plant Protection Service

  36. Guidelines: fruit set to harvest • Field Surveys • Manually removing secondary flowers • Orchard monitoring to verify the occurence of symptoms and remove and burn organs affected • Chemical sprays • In case of storm or hail apply 1 copper spray (50-100 Cu g/hl) before or after (within 24 hours) the disease conducive event • Agricultural practices • Do not exced nitrogen dosages and application time recommended • Avoid NAA application • Avoid every pruning • Avoid sprinkler irrigation and gradually reduce the amount of water to complete stop. Plant Protection Service

  37. Guidelines: beginning to complete leaf fall • Field Surveys • Constantly orchard monitoring to verify the occurence of symptoms and remove and burn organs affected • Chemical sprays • apply 1 copper spray at the beginning of petal fall and another at complete petal fall (150-250 Cu g/hl) • Agricultural practices • Avoid NAA application • Avoid every pruning Plant Protection Service

  38. Guidelines: winter • Field Surveys • orchard monitoring before every pruning to verify the occurence of symptoms and remove and burn organs affected • Chemical sprays • Avoid chemical sprays • Agricultural practices • Pruning allowed in dicember and january • Avoid chopping pruned wood, but remove and burn it Plant Protection Service