Salt water, • then frozen ice, • groundwater, • surface water, • water vapor
Is Earth’s water steadily increasing, decreasing, or staying in balance? Why?
Earth’s water stays in balance: the rate of evaporation is equal to rate of precipitation.
What process takes place when liquid water absorbs enough energy to change into water vapor?
What is the process where four forms of water fall from clouds to Earth’s surface?
Compare (what is the same) and contrast (what is different)about evaporation and condensation.
Compare: both involve changes in state • Contrast: evaporation is liquid to gas; condensation is gas to liquid
Fresh water enters the ocean (ex. from rivers and rain); but water also evaporates from the ocean, leaving the salt behind.
As you descend in the ocean, through the water column, how do the conditions change? (include temperature, light, pressure, and density)
First, continental shelf, continental slope, abyssal plain (then possibly seamounts and volcanic islands, midocean ridge, trenches)
Deep ocean currents are caused by differences in density and the Coriolis effect
How do surface currents (ex. Gulf Stream, California Current) affect coastal climates?
Surface currents, in the ocean, warm or cool the air above affecting temperatures and the climate of nearby places.
Tides are caused by the interaction of the Earth, moon, and sun (gravity).
High tide is when water reaches its highest point; low tide is when water reaches its lowest point. High tides occur about every 12 hours; low tides occur about every 12 hours.
Spring tides: full moon and new moon phases (all in a straight line); sun-Earth-moon and sun-moon-Earth
Neap tides: 1st quarter and 3rd quarter phases (lined up at 90 degree angles)
Nitrogen 78%, • Oxygen 21%, • other 1%
As altitude increases, air pressure ____________ and air density ____________.
Local winds are caused by the unequal heating of Earth’s surface, within a small area.
Caused by differences in pressure, due to unequal heating of land vs. water