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3 rd Quarter Review

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  1. 3rd Quarter Review

  2. What is the distribution of Earth’s water from greatest to least?

  3. Salt water, • then frozen ice, • groundwater, • surface water, • water vapor

  4. Draw and label the Water Cycle.

  5. Is Earth’s water steadily increasing, decreasing, or staying in balance? Why?

  6. Earth’s water stays in balance: the rate of evaporation is equal to rate of precipitation.

  7. What process takes place when liquid water absorbs enough energy to change into water vapor?

  8. Evaporation

  9. What process happens when water vapor cools and changes to liquid water?

  10. Condensation

  11. What is the process where four forms of water fall from clouds to Earth’s surface?

  12. Precipitation

  13. Compare (what is the same) and contrast (what is different)about evaporation and condensation.

  14. Compare: both involve changes in state • Contrast: evaporation is liquid to gas; condensation is gas to liquid

  15. Why does the ocean’s salinity stay about the same?

  16. Fresh water enters the ocean (ex. from rivers and rain); but water also evaporates from the ocean, leaving the salt behind.

  17. As you descend in the ocean, through the water column, how do the conditions change? (include temperature, light, pressure, and density)

  18. Temperature and light decrease; pressure and density increase

  19. List the features of the ocean floor from shore to the deep ocean.

  20. First, continental shelf, continental slope, abyssal plain (then possibly seamounts and volcanic islands, midocean ridge, trenches)

  21. What causes waves?

  22. Wind

  23. What causes surface currents?

  24. Wind

  25. What causes deep ocean currents?

  26. Deep ocean currents are caused by differences in density and the Coriolis effect

  27. How do surface currents (ex. Gulf Stream, California Current) affect coastal climates?

  28. Surface currents, in the ocean, warm or cool the air above affecting temperatures and the climate of nearby places.

  29. What causes tides?

  30. Tides are caused by the interaction of the Earth, moon, and sun (gravity).

  31. What is high tide and low tide? About how often does each occur?

  32. High tide is when water reaches its highest point; low tide is when water reaches its lowest point. High tides occur about every 12 hours; low tides occur about every 12 hours.

  33. Draw a Spring Tide.

  34. Spring tides: full moon and new moon phases (all in a straight line); sun-Earth-moon and sun-moon-Earth

  35. Draw a Neap tide.

  36. Neap tides: 1st quarter and 3rd quarter phases (lined up at 90 degree angles)

  37. What are the gases and percentages that make up air?

  38. Nitrogen 78%, • Oxygen 21%, • other 1%

  39. As altitude increases, air pressure ____________ and air density ____________.

  40. Decreases, decreases

  41. What causes local winds?

  42. Local winds are caused by the unequal heating of Earth’s surface, within a small area.

  43. Draw and label a sea breeze.

  44. Sea breeze – daytime – air moves from sea to land

  45. What causes a land breeze?

  46. Land breeze – at night – air moves from land to sea

  47. What causes land and sea breezes?

  48. Caused by differences in pressure, due to unequal heating of land vs. water

  49. What causes global winds?