The Kennedy & Johnson Years Chapter 28
Kennedy – The New Frontier • 1960 Presidential Campaign • Republican VP Richard E. Nixon with Henry Cabot Lodge • vs. Democrat John F. Kennedy with Lyndon B. Johnson
Election of 1960 • Kennedy had to overcome:
Election of 1960 • On his side • money for campaign • youthful, energetic appearance • ____________ hero
Election of 1960 1960 – ____________________arrested in Atlanta for sit-down strike Eisenhower and Nixon ignored the situation JFK championed him in his campaign _________________talked the judge into releasing him, pending appeal Won _______________voters
Election of 1960 • Nixon had to overcome: • Appearance in 1960 presidential debate – looked _______________________________
_______________ • President and 1st family youthful, energetic, and exposed on TV to the public • Jackie elegant and well spoken. Fluent in _______________________and an asset on foreign trips • Caroline and later John were photographed in the White House and at Hyannis Port with their parents.
Camelot Inaugural Address: “Ask not what your country can do for you…..”
Camelot • Effect on youth was to inspire them. Many future diplomats and politicians became politically active in the early 1960’s, including • Advisors to Kennedy were young; average age 47. • _____________was Attorney General.
Camelot • Kennedy’s infirmities were hidden from the media. • Bad back and __________ disease often left him in pain. • _______________ also kept from media
Cuba • ____________________backed by USA • US companies owned over 50% of land and resources • US mob ran Havana casinos – “sin city”
Cuban Revolution • Middle class of professionals, primarily in Havana, supported • Peasants supported
Cuba only _________from Continental United States • Under previous treaties, US had right to intervene if Cuba had domestic problems
Eisenhower authorized a plan for the CIA to train Cuban refugees to invade Cuba • Kennedy had to approve the plan a few months after he took office • Opposed the plan but military advisors advocated approval • Reluctantly gave his consent
April 15-16, 1961 • Invasion force was dropped off as planned • Castro’s forces were waiting for them • Kennedy withdrew American air support and left them to be captured • Out of 1500,
Khrushchev demanded that all American troops leave • When Kennedy refused Khrushchevhad a wall built to keep • Known as the ____________, it was a symbol of the so-called _____________and Cold War • It remained until 1989.
In 1962, the Soviet Union was behind the USA in missile technology • Soviet Union had mid-range missiles only • USA had long-range missiles capable of hitting the USSR from the USA • USA had mid-range missiles positioned in Europe to hit the USSR
_____ spy planes photographed missile sites in Cuba • Kennedy and his advisors met secretly to discuss their options
If the sites were operational, missiles could reach the USA in and Washington DC in about • USA believed the sites were not yet operational but that the Soviet Union was in the process of sending the nukes to Cuba
October 22, 1962 Kennedy appeared on TV to announce a • Demanded that the Soviets withdraw all nukes from Cuba • They declined • the Soviet ships reached the naval blockade
Cuban Missile Crisis • Kennedy & Khrushchev reach an agreement on October 27, 1962
October 28, 1962 Khrushchev announced that the missiles were withdrawn in return for a promise from the USA • Secretly, the USA also agreed to withdraw missiles from _____________, which was Khrushchev’s objective all along. • Closest the world came to nuclear holocaust
Cuban Missile Crisis • Results:
Decrease dependence on nukes and increase capabilities of conventional military
______________ Founded by Kennedy in 1961. • Volunteers went to foreign countries to promote peace
Founded by Kennedy in 1961. Volunteers: • Food, loans and Peace Corps volunteers sent to Africa
Alliance For Progress offered billions to Latin American countries if they promised to begin democratic reforms.
Response to Alliance for progress by Ché Guevara After the failed April 1961 "Bay of Pigs" invasion of Cuba, U.S. Pres. J.F. Kennedy attempted a "regime change" by other means. He proposed a large aid package to Latin America and called it the Alliance for Progress……(Kennedy’s goal) “to build a hemisphere where all men can hope for a suitable standard of living and all can live out their lives in dignity and in freedom."
Response to Alliance for progress ………..Nothing could have been further from the truth. The United States was looking for a way to isolate the revolutionary government of Cuba and provide a counterbalance to the example of socialism that Cuba provided. Ché Guevara
Domestic Policies • Kennedy shocked to find out that over 42 millions Americans • Kennedy one of wealthiest presidents; personal income of ______________, family income many times that. • In May 1961 passed the Area Redevelopment Act to assist distressed regions. • Began working on an anti-poverty program that he planned to introduce in 1964
Domestic Policies • Called for cooperation between industry, labor and government to reduce • Labor agreed to concessions but the steel industry attempted to raise prices. • Kennedy canceled government contracts for steel and was accused of using heavy-handed tactics. Steel industry capitulated and decided not to raise prices after all.
Space Program • Eisenhower established ____________ • Thought trip to moon was waste of money • _____________- Soviets orbital flight encircled the earth. Khrushchev “Communist triumph over a decaying capitalistic system."
Space Program Kennedy, "I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth."
Space Program • Promised manned flights to the moon by end of decade • Started ____________ program • Assassinated before it was accomplished
Assassination – Nov. 22, 1963 • Dallas, Texas in motorcade through city • ______________arrested and accused of shooting from book deposit building • ______________killed Oswald 2 days after his arrest and before he could stand trial. • Died in prison a few years later of natural causes.
Convened by Johnson to put an end to the conspiracy theories • Found that Oswald had acted alone and so had Ruby • Few people believed them
“Kennedy inspired...Johnson delivered.” • Johnson - sworn in on Air Force One • Kept Kennedy’s • Addressed Congress on Nov. 27, where he praised Kennedy and promised to continue his agenda • Congress agreed to support the programs they previously opposed • proposed by Kennedy
War on PovertyState of the Union Address, 1964 • Created __________________________with $1 billion budget to oversee anti-poverty program • _________– job training for youths 16 to 21 • ___________– preschool for underprivileged children
War on PovertyState of the Union Address, 1964 • ________ – Volunteers in Service to America – Peace Corps at home • Allowed American Indians to support and operate their own anti-poverty programs
Civil Rights Act of _______ Section 703 (a) made it unlawful for an employer to "fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual, or otherwise to discriminate against any individual with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions or privileges or employment, because of such individual's _____________ _________ __________ ______________, or ___________________________.
Election of 1964 • Lyndon Johnson and Hubert Humphrey • Anti-poverty and Civil Rights • Barry Goldwater and William Miller • “extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice”.
Great Society – 1965 • ________ – health care for people over 65 • __________ – health care for poor people • Elementary and Secondary Education Act – 1.3 billion to schools in poor areas
Great Society – 1965 • _________________– Urban renewal and subsidized housing • ___________________________________________________created to oversee Omnibus programs
Great Society – 1965 • Money given to National Endowment of the _____ and National Endowment of the ________________ • Created the Corporation for
Environmental Issues • Rachel Carson - Wrote Silent Spring in 1962 about the effects of ____ on wildlife.
Pesticide companies denied culpability and held up progress for years • Johnson passed the Water Quality Act of 1965; the Air Quality Act of 1967; and the Water Pollution Act of 1968 to help clean up the environment • was outlawed
Environmental Issues • Johnson created new (1968)