Chapter 12 • Prisons and Jails
Early Punishments • flogging • mutilation • branding • public humiliation • workhouses • exile
ducking stool - A seesaw device to which an offender is tied and lowered into a lake or river. brank - A birdcage-like contraption that fit over a person’s head. The door on the front by mouth is fitted with a razor blade which enters mouth when the door is closed. Early Punishments Public Humiliation
stocks - A person sits with hands locked in a wooden structure, while the head is free. pillory - A person is forced to stand because of the wooden structure that closes over both the head and hands. Early Punishments
Early Punishments Workhouses Workhouses were an early form of imprisonment designed to foster habits of industry in the poor. • 1557 - first workhouse in England • former British palace called St. Bridget’s Well • nicknamed “Brideswell” -became synonymous with workhouse
Early Punishments Exile is the practice of sending offenders out of country. French sent offenders to Devil’s Island. Exile
England sent offenders to the colonies beginning in 1618. The program was called “transportation.” American revolution stopped the practice of transportation. Early Punishments Exile
Early Prisons Middle Ages • 1400’s - 1500’s first “prison” in Europe • for debtors
It was converted to a prison by Quakers. Goal was to provide religion and humanity to imprisoned offenders held in solitary confinement. Penitentiary Era (1790-1825) Walnut Street Jail, PA • The study of the Bible was the primary method.
Penitentiary Era (1790-1825) • 1826- Western Penitentiary opened in Pittsburgh, PA. • 1829 - Eastern Penitentiary opened in Cherry Hill, PA. • Other states followed: • Vermont • Massachusetts • Maryland • New York
This era introduced “congregate” but silent style. Offenders ate, lived, and worked together in silence. Corporal punishment was used for rule violators. This became known as the “Auburn system.” From 1825 onward, most prisons built in the U.S. followed the Auburn system. Mass Prison Era (1825-1876)
Reformatory Era (1876-1890) Based upon the use of indeterminate sentence and belief in rehabilitation, the reformatory movement is the result of the work of two men. • Captain Alexander Maconochie • Sir Walter Crofton
Reformatory Era (1876-1890) Captain Alexander Maconochie • Maconochie developed the “mark system.” • Prisoners could earn credits to buy their freedom. • Negative behavior caused marks to be lost. • Mark system constituted first “early release” program. • Maconochie became known as “father of parole.”
Reformatory Era (1876-1890) Sir Walter Crofton • head of Irish Prison System • adapted Maconochie’s early release program • set up four-stage program • entry stage - offenders are: • placed in solitary confinement • given simple, unmotivating work
Reformatory Era (1876-1890) Sir Walter Crofton • second stage - Offenders worked on fortifications at Spike Island where they were housed. • field unit stage - Offenders worked directly on public service projects in the community.
Reformatory Era (1876-1890) Sir Walter Crofton • ticket of leave stage - This stage allowed offenders to live and work in a community under occasional supervision of a “moral instructor.”
Reformatory Era (1876-1890) Sir Walter Crofton • Ticket of leave could be revoked at any time and the offender would serve remaining time of sentence in prison. • Crofton believed that reintegration into community was necessary for success of rehabilitation.
Reformatory Era (1876-1890) Elmira Reformatory • Zebulon Brockway was the warden at Elmira. • The reformatory was a leading advocate of the indeterminate sentence. • Elmira accepted only first time offenders between ages 16-30.
Reformatory Era (1876-1890) Elmira Reformatory System of graded stages requiring offenders to meet goals in: • education • behavior • other appropriate goals
Reformatory Era (1876-1890) Elmira Reformatory Training made available in such areas as: • telegraphy • tailoring • plumbing • carpentry
The goal wasto maximize the use of the offender labor movement. began in industrial northeast U.S. Northern Prisons smelted steel made furniture molded tires Industrial Prison Era (1890-1935)
Southern Prisons farm labor public works projects Industrial Prison Era (1890-1935)
Types of Offender Labor Systems Industrial Prison Era (1890-1935) Contract system Piece-price system Lease system Public account system State-use system Public works system
This act required prison goods to conform to regulations of the states through which they were shipped. States that outlawed the manufacture of free market goods in their own prisons were effectively protected from prison- made goods from other states under this act. Industrial Prison Era (1890-1935) Hawes-Cooper Act (1929)
Act came about as a result of complaints by labor that they could not compete with cheap prison labor. Industrial Prison Era (1890-1935) Hawes-Cooper Act (1929)
It specifically prohibited interstate transportation and sale of prison made goods where prohibited by state law. Act came about partly as a result of the Depression. It effectively ended industrial prison era. Industrial Prison Era (1890-1935) Ashurst-Sumners Act (1935)
With a moratorium on prison industries, prisons reverted back to custody and security as main goals. Large maximum security prisons evolved in rural “out-of-sight” locations. Punitive Era (1935-1945)
Development of behavioral techniques in the 1930’s and 1940’s brought about the concept of treatment in prisons. Treatment based on “medical model.” Individual and group therapy programs evolved. Treatment Era (1945-1967)
Types of Therapy Programs behavioral therapy drug therapy neurosurgery sensory deprivation aversion therapy Treatment Era (1945-1967)
Community Based Era (1967-1980) • This era relies upon resources of community instead of prison. • Plan is to keep offender in the community. • half-way house - Community- based treatment program whereby the individual lives in a house but is allowed to go to work during the day.
Half-way In Individuals who have been placed on probation and one condition is that they reside in the half-way house. Half-way Out Individuals on parole and one condition of their parole is that they reside at a half-way house. Community Based Era (1967-1980)
U.S. Prison Population, 1960-2000. Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics
The Warehousing Era (1980-1995) Robert Martinson “Nothing Works” study (1974) He surveyed 231 research studies that evaluated correctional treatment programs between 1945-1967. None of the 231 programs appeared to substantially reduce recidivism.
The Warehousing Era (1980-1995) recidivism - The commission of a crime by an individual who has previously been convicted of a crime; the new crime may be the same or different from the first crime.
The Warehousing Era (1980-1995) Definitions of Prison Capacity • design capacity - The prison population the institution was originally built to handle. • operational capacity - The number of prisoners a facility can effectively accommodate based on the staff and programs of the facility. • rated capacity - The size of the prison population that a facility can handle according to the judgment of experts.
Imprisonment is seen as fully deserved and a proper consequence of criminal behavior. Root purpose of imprisonment ispunishment. The Just Deserts Era (1995-Present)
1995 - Virginia abolishes parole, increases the length of sentences for certain violent crimes, and plans building of 12 new prisons. 1995 - 28 states report a decrease in prisoner privileges during previous 12 months. The Just Deserts Era (1995-Present)
reduces personal property allowed restricts outside purchases eliminates cable TV abolishes family visits eliminates special occasion banquets The Just Deserts Era (1995-Present)
Prisons Today Approximately 1,000 state prisons 80 federal prisons 461 state and federal prisoners per 100,000 population On January 1, 2001, state and federal prisons held 1,381,892 inmates. Slightly more than 6.6% of those imprisoned were women. Numbers and Types of Prisons
Whites - 1,108 incarcerated per 100,000 white males in their late 20’s. Blacks - 9,749 incarcerated per 100,000 black males in their late 20’s. Prisons Today Race
Prisons Today State Level 48% sentenced for violent crime. 21% sentenced for property crime. 21% sentenced for drug crime. Federal Level 61% sentenced for drug law violations. Types of Crimes
low level of formal education socially disadvantaged background lack of significant vocational skills (most) served time in a juvenile facility Prisons Today Inmates
Prisons Today Staff • 350,000 people are employed in corrections. • 20% of all correctional officers are female. • 70% of correctional officers are white. • 22% of correctional officers are black. • 5% of correctional officers are Hispanic. • 4.1 to 1 is the inmate/custody staff ratio.
Prisons Today Security Levels • maximum • medium • minimum
Prisons Today Maximum High levels of security characterized by: • high fences/walls of concrete • barriers between living area and outer perimeter • electric perimeters • laser motion detectors • electronic and pneumatic locking systems • metal detectors • X-ray machines • television surveillance • thick walls • secure cells • gun towers • armed guards • radio communication between staff
Prisons Today Medium Similar in design to maximum security facilities, however, they allow prisoners more freedom. Prisoners can usually: • associate with other prisoners • go to prison yard • use exercise room/equipment • use library • use shower and bathroom facilities under less supervision
Prisons Today Medium • While individual cells predominate, dormitory style housing is sometimes used. • Cells and living quarters tend to have more windows.
Prisons Today Medium “Count” • Process of counting number of inmates during course of day. Times are random, and all business stops until count is verified. • Medium security facilities tend to have barbed wire at top of fences instead of large stone walls of maximum security facilities.
Prisons Today Minimum • Housing tends to be dormitory style, and prisoners usually have freedom of movement around the facility. • Work is done under general supervision only. • Guards are unarmed, and gun towers do not exist. • Fences, if they do exist, are low and sometimes unlocked. • “Counts” are usually not taken. • Prisoners are sometimes allowed to wear their own clothes.
Federal Prison System History • 1895 - Leavenworth, Kansas - First federal prison for civilians opens. • 1906 - Second prison in Atlanta opens. • 1927 -Alderson, West Virginia - First federal prison for women opens. • 1933 - Springfield, Missouri - Medical Center for federal prisoners opens with 1,000 bed capacity. • 1934 - Alcatraz begins operations.