United StatesEnters WW I WWI 1914 -1918 U.S. entered in 1917
Isolationism • During the first 3 years of WWI, the U.S. followed a policy of isolationism the belief that the U.S. should stay out of the business of other nations.
Reasons U.S. entered WWI • Sinking of the Lusitania • Germany and Britain were using ships and u-boats to block supplies from arriving to the enemy by sea (blockade) • Feb 1915 – Germany declared the waters surround Britain to be a ‘war zone’ and enemy ships would be sunk • U.S. warned Germany that if a U.S. vessel was sunk there would be consequences
May 17, 1915 • British liner, The Lusitania, was traveling from NY to England • Sunk by a German torpedo • 1200 people died, 128 were Americans • Woodrow Wilson (U.S. President) was about to declare war but Germany promised it would no longer attack neutral or passenger ships • Germany kept the promise for 2 years • Feb 1917 – Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare • Germany then sunk 2 U.S. cargo ships in March 1917
What does the sinking ship represent? • How is the u-boat represented in this cartoon? • What does the artist think is going to happen in the future?
Zimmerman Telegram - January 1917 • British intercepted a note from Germany to Mexico • The note wanted Mexico to attack the U.S. • In return, Germany promised to give the land Mexico lost to the U.S. back to them once Germany won WWI
4. What country does the man whispering represent? 5. What country does the man listening represent? 6. What event does this cartoon represent?
America Joins WWI • Americans were outraged • After remaining neutral for 3 years, the U.S. joined WWI in April 6, 1917
3 minute summary… • Focus on the 2 main events (Lusitania and Zimmerman Telegram) causing US to enter WWI. Was the US justified? • Be ready to explain your answer.
Doughboys • US entered WWI in spring of 1917 • US army had only 110,000 soldiers • Infantry men of the A.E.F. (American Expeditionary Force) who went to France were called doughboys • US forced to pass the Selective Service Act forced young men to register for draft • 24,000,000 registered for the draft • 3,300,000 were enlisted • 1,000,000 went to the western front in France
On the Homefront • When the US entered WWI, it changed to a wartime economy • 1917 – President Wilson created the War Industries Board to control factories that produced war materials • Steel plants used to build weapons • Automobile plants built airplanes • Products changed to conserve materials • Hi top sneakers were no longer made to save leather • Dresses were shorter so there was cloth for uniforms
American farmers were asked to conserve food for the war effort “Meatless Mondays” “Wheatless Wednesdays” People were urged to grow “Victory gardens” so they could eat more homegrown food
Paying for the War • Government was running out of money • Increased income taxes • Sold war bonds lend money to the government, when the war was over the government would repay the war bond plus interest
Laws control people against war • There was a small number of Americans who did not support the war • Government wanted to make sure no one damaged the war effort • 1917 – passed the Espionage Act • Anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy could go to jail for 20 years • 1918 – passed the Sedition Act • Anyone who spoke out against the government, the Constitution, the American flag, or the military could be punished During WWI, over 1500 people were arrested for violating the Espionage Act or Sedition Act
Support for the War • Propaganda an attempt to spread an idea or belief • Posters, music, literature
5 minute summary: • Explain how US involvement in World War I changed lives for different groups of Americans? (soldiers, government, civilians, etc.)