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The United States Enters WWI Section 9.1 (Appleby 320-327)

The United States Enters WWI Section 9.1 (Appleby 320-327)

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The United States Enters WWI Section 9.1 (Appleby 320-327)

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  1. The United States Enters WWISection 9.1 (Appleby 320-327) Chapter 9 World War I and Its Aftermath PF 3:28

  2. Today Agenda • Return and go over test • Class Average= 83% • # of As= 9 • # of Bs= 17 • # of Cs=11 • 9.1 Slide Show • Homework • -Finish reading 9.1

  3. Today’s ObjectivesAt the end of this lesson, you should be able to: • Define Triple Entente/ Central Powers and list its member • Define neutrality and describe its complexity &/or hypocrisy in American policy • Identify the Zimmerman Note • Identify Lusitania as the catalyst of America’s formal entry into WWI • Identify major economic reasons for America’s entry into WWI

  4. Background to WWI Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia -Serbia humiliated Franco-Prussian War -German Empire begins -France humiliated Archduke Franz Ferdinand visits Sarajevo Growing nationalism 1871 1888 1904 1914 Wilhelm II crowned Kaiser -Demands “A place in the sun” Russo-Japanese War -Russia humiliated

  5. Europe on the Eve of War, June 1914 Austro-Hungary annexes Bosnia Growing German naval power alarms Great Britain German militarism alarms France and Russia Russia, Aus-Hun, Ottoman Emp. compete for control of Balkans Russian, Germany, GB, France compete for empire Malignant Serbian Nationalism grows

  6. Friedrich Nietzsche • Philosopher of late 1800s • “God is dead” • Believed that the greatest good is power, strength • Greatest evil is weakness • His beliefs greatly influenced leaders of Europe in WWI

  7. What were the MAIN causes of WWI? • Militarism • Aggressive buildup of armed forces meant to intimidate other nations • German insecurity led to massive buildup • Alliance System • Insecurity caused nations form security guarantees • An attack on one was an attack on all • Imperialism • Intense competition among powers for territory/ status • Nationalism • Intense love of one’s nation mixed with social Darwinism • Viewed other nations as inferior • Fredrick Nietzsche’s Will to Power

  8. The Match: Gavrilo Princeps

  9. Today’s Agenda • Review • Finish 9.1 Slide Show • Homework • Read 9.1 in Textbook and answer “Primary Source: Causes of WWI” questions 1-2 on a separate sheet of paper on page 323

  10. What events triggered the outbreak of the Great War? 1914 JuneJulyAugust Central Powers at war with Triple Entente in 8/4/14 Archduke of Austria Assassinated in Sarajevo on 6/14/14 Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia 7/28/14 Wilson declares American neutrality 8/4/14

  11. Alliance System

  12. Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Triple Entente (Allies) France Great Britain Russia Who were the members of the Central & Triple Entente Alliances?

  13. Enthusiasm for War

  14. Why did Germany’s war plan for an early victory fail? • Schlieffen Plan • Plan to deal with 2 front war • 1st -Quickly sweep through Belgium & defeat France • 2nd -Defeat slow moving Russia & WIN • Failed because • Russia mobilized quickly • French halted advance in west • Led to bloody stalemate of trench warfare

  15. The Fronts

  16. Describe the nature of the fighting. • Trench Warfare • frontal assaults over “no man’s land” • Massive destruction & casualties • Battle of the Somme (Jul-Nov. 1916) • GB lost 60 thousand in one day • 1.5 million casualties • Gained 6 miles in 5 months • Senseless death of millions

  17. Battle of the Somme

  18. Let’s Review • Term for when one nation dominates another politically, economically • TR’s foreign policy • Insecure leader of Germany • Causes of WWI • What was the Schielfen Plan • Characteristics of the fighting

  19. Why were the casualties so high? • Used Traditional Infantry ‘charges’ • “Over the top!” • BUT possessed advanced weaponry • Machine gun • Artillery • Mustard gas • Barbed wire • Tanks 18:00-20:24

  20. Harry Houdini Presentation

  21. 1915-1916

  22. What was America’s official policy toward the war? • Neutral • “We must be impartial in thought as well as in action.” • Despite diverse population of immigrants, most Americans supported this view 7:30-

  23. American Neutrality

  24. Was America really neutral? • Strong economic ties to Entente • Triple Entente owed $2.25 billion to US companies • British controlled flow of information • Cut Transatlantic cable in 1914 • Portrayed Germans as “Huns” I.E. Mindless barbarians 9:42-11:27

  25. Propaganda and Economic Impact

  26. What happened to the Lusitania? • British passenger ship • Secretly carried American arms to the allies • Passengers warned by German gov. before ship embarked • Sunk by German U-Boats (submarine) in 1915 • Outraged American public 0:53-3:48

  27. Describe the election of 1916. • Wilson campaigns & wins on anti-war platform • “He kept us out of war!” • In reality America had sided with the Allies (Entente) • $2.25 billion in loans • Attracted to post war investment • Wanted an American voice at peace settlement • Natural cultural connection to Britain

  28. What was the Zimmerman Note? • Zimmerman Note • German cable to Mexico promised pre-1848 territory if Mexico side with Germany • Discovered by British and released to American press • Further outraged American public

  29. Why did Wilson ask Congress to declare war? • Germany returned to Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Jan. 1917 • ‘To make the world safe for democracy’ • Believed the “American System” would save the world • Hoped to spread American Style democracy, capitalism • Believed WWI would be War to end all wars

  30. Conclusion • Is spreading democracy a valid reason for going to war? • Is protecting economic interests a valid reason?