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BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION: Strategies for Everyday Use. Parent Resource Centre (PRC) Workshop #2 Tuesday 2 February 2010. SOUND FAMILIAR?. Useless parenting question. ACTIVITY. 1-Minute Pause Think of 1 behaviour in your child that you would like to increase
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BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION: Strategies for Everyday Use Parent Resource Centre (PRC) Workshop #2 Tuesday 2 February 2010
SOUND FAMILIAR? • Useless parenting question
ACTIVITY 1-Minute Pause Think of 1 behaviour in your child that you would like to increase and 1 behaviour that you would like to decrease.
CONNECT - PAST • B. F. Skinner • Operant conditioning • Management theory
CONNECT - FUTURE • Advantage • If we understand the principles • Wide applications in society
BIG PICTURE • Behaviour is controlled by the events that follow it (consequences)
GOALS • Select specific strategies to increase/decrease behaviours in your children
STRATEGIES • INCREASE • DECREASE
INCREASE • (+) Reinforcement • (-) Reinforcement
(+) REINFORCEMENT • Presentation of a stimulus following a response that increases the future probability of the response • Contingent • Immediate
(+) REINFORCEMENT - EXAMPLES • Food • Praise • Affection • Tokens/stickers • Money/paycheck/gratuity • Gifts • Begging
(+) REINFORCEMENT Principles • Reinforcer must be perceived as (+) • in the eye of the perceiver • Premack Principle • Shaping • Prompting
(-) REINFORCEMENT • Removal of an aversive stimulus following a response that increases the future rate or probability the response • Contingent • Immediate
(-) REINFORCEMENT - EXAMPLES • Alarm clock • Loud buzz in cars until seat belts are buckled • Doing chores to avoid being nagged • Speed bumps • Leaving home early to avoid heavy traffic • Honking horn
EXAMPLE • INTERACTIVE REINFORCEMENT • Dog whines • Owner opens gate • Dog’s behaviour is (+) reinforced • Owner’s behaviour is (-) reinforced
ACTIVITY • Think-Pair-Share • Select a behaviour in your child that you would like to increase. • Create a plan using either • (+) reinforcement or • (-) reinforcement.
DECREASE • Level 1 • Differential reinforcement • Level 2 • Extinction • Level 3 (Remove desirable stimuli) • Response-cost • Time-out • Level 4 (Present aversivestimuli) • Overcorrection • Overcorrection
DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT (Level 1) • Reinforcing an alternative behaviour that may be incompatible with the behaviour targeted for reduction and the performance of which decreases the likelihood that the inappropriate behavior will be performed. • An inappropriate or challenging behavior is replaced by a behavior considered as more appropriate or positive.
EXTINCTION (Level 2) 22) • Withhold or end the positive reinforcer that is maintaining the inappropriate target behavior
EXTINCTION (Level 2) 22) • Attention-seeking behaviours • Tantrums
PUNISHMENT • Consequent stimulus that • Decreases probability of occurrence of behavior • Contingent • Immediate
RESPONSE-COST(Level 3)3) • Withdrawal of specific amounts of a reinforcer contingent on inappropriate behavior
RESPONSE-COSTEXAMPLES • Speeding ticket • Take away tokens/points • Late fee/fine
TIME OUT (Level 3) • Nonseclusionary • Exclusionary • Seclusionary
TIME OUT (Level 3) • Remove reinforcers • Neutral setting • Short as possible
AVERSIVE STIMULI(Level 4) (L(( (L(Level 4) • Conditioned • Warnings, vocal tones, gestures • Unconditioned • Mild aversives • Physical control
OVERCORRECTION(Level 4) (L(( (L(Level 4) • Teach correct behavior through exaggeration of experience
OVERCORRECTION(Level 4) (L(( (L(Level 4) • 2 types • Restitution • To restore the setting • Positive-practice • Engage in exaggerated or overly correct practice ofappropriate behavior
CORRECTIVE STRATEGIES • R-I-P • Rules-Ignore-Praise • R-R-P • Rules-Reward-Punishment • TOKEN ECONOMY • CONTRACTS
FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOURAL ANALYSIS • A - B - C chart • Antecedent • Behaviour • Consequences
ACTIVITY • Think-Pair-Share • Select a behaviour in your child that you would like to decrease. • Create a plan using the A-B-C chart to decrease the behaviour. • Create a plan to teach a more appropriate replacement behaviour.
ACTIVITY • What behaviour was increased/decreased? • Was the behaviour increased? Was the behaviour decreased? • What was the consequence that followed the behaviour? • Was the consequence added/removed?
ACTIVITY 1 • Billy likes to camp-out in the backyard. He camped-out on every Friday during the month of June. The last time he camped out, some older kids snuck up to his tent while he was sleeping and threw a bucket of cold water on him. Billy has not camped-out for three weeks.
ACTIVITY 2 • Every time Madge raises her hand in class she is called on. She raised her hand 3 times during the first class, 3 times in the second and 4 times during the last class.
ACTIVITY 3 • Gregory is being reinforced using a token economy. When he follows a direction, he earns a point. At the end of each day, he can "buy" free time, e.g., TV privileges, with his points. When he doesn't follow a command, he loses points. Andrew used to call his mom names. Since he has been on the point system, his name calling has been reduced to almost zero.
ACTIVITY 4 • John did not go to the dentist every 6-months for a checkup. Instead, he waited until a tooth really hurt, then went to the dentist. After two emergency trips to the dentist, John now goes every 6-months.
USES • Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) • Autism Spectrum Disorder
FINAL THOUGHTS • Start out with (+) approaches • Have a variety of tools in your management toolbox