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  1. Reconstruction 1865-1877

  2. Black Codes: Southern states passed black codes to keep power over former slaves.  Solution: Before states were readmitted, Congress made them pass a civil rights amendment and allow black men to vote. • President Johnson: blocked Reconstruction measures.  Solution: Congress impeached him to remove him from office. Problems during Reconstruction

  3. Education: Newly freed African Americans needed an education.  Solution: Organizations set up Freedmen’s schools. • Economy: African Americans needed to make a living.  Solution: They farmed on confiscated land, signed work contracts, or sharecropped. Problems during Reconstruction

  4. Ku Klux Klan: terrorized African Americans and Republicans.  Solution: Congress passed anti-Klan laws. • Voting: Southern states tried to keep African Americans from voting.  Solution: Congress passed Fifteenth Amendment to give them voting rights. Problems during Reconstruction

  5. Crash Course: Reconstruction

  6. 10% Plan • Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (December 8, 1863) • Replace majority rule with “loyal rule” in the South. • He didn’t consult Congress regarding Reconstruction. • Pardon to all but the highest ranking military and civilian Confederate officers. • When 10% of the voting population in the 1860 election had taken an oath of loyalty and established a government, it would be recognized. President Lincoln’s Plan

  7. January 1865, Lincoln urged Congress to try again to end slavery. -13th Amendment is passed. • April 9th, 1865 Robert E. Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House in Virginia. • April 14th, 1865 John Wilkes Booth shoots President Lincoln in the back of the head at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C. • April 15th , 1865 President Lincoln dies in the morning and is the 1st President to be assassinated. Lincoln’s Assassination

  8. Ratified in December, 1865. • Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction. • Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 13th Amendment

  9. Jefferson Davis Under Arrest

  10. The Freedmen’s Bureau was a federal government agency that helped newly freed slaves find jobs and gain an education. • Northerners who went South after the Civil War for financial and political gain were called carpetbaggers. Freedmen’s Bureau -1865

  11. Plenty to eat and nothing to do. How the South sees the Freedmen’s Bureau

  12. Bureau of Refugees and Freedmen. • Many Former Northern abolitionists risked their lives to help Southern Freedmen. • Called carpetbaggers by Southern Democrats. Freedmen’s Bureau helped both former slaves and poor whites after the Civil War as part of the Reconstruction plan. Freedmen’s Bureau School

  13. Democrat • Former slave owner from Tennessee. • Offered amnesty, or official pardon to most white Southerners. • Policies led to a break with Radical Republicans in Congress. Vice-President Andrew Johnson becomes president after Lincoln’s assassination in 1865.

  14. Offered amnesty upon simple oath to all except Confederate civil and military officers and those with property over $20,000 (they could apply directly to Johnson) • In new constitutions, they must accept minimumconditions repudiating slavery, secession and state debts. • Named provisional governors in Confederate states and called them to oversee elections for constitutional conventions. President Johnson’s Plan (10%+)

  15. Pardoned planter aristocrats brought them back to political power to control state organizations. • Johnson granted 13,500 special pardons. • Republicans were outraged that planter elite were back in power in the South! • Many Southern state constitutions fell short of minimum requirements. • Revival of southern defiance. • BLACK CODES Effects

  16. Slavery is Dead?

  17. Black Codes were laws passed by Southern states that limited the freedom of former slaves. • Purpose: • Guarantee stable labor supply now that blacks were emancipated. • Restore pre-emancipationsystem of race relations. • Forced many blacks to become sharecroppers [tenant farmers]. Black Codes

  18. Sharecropping

  19. Tenancy & the Crop Lien System

  20. President Johnson differed with Radical Republicans in Congress on how to reconstruct the South. This led to his impeachment. • Congress bars SouthernCongressional delegates. • Joint Committee on Reconstruction created. • February, 1866  Presidentvetoed the Freedmen’sBureau bill. • March, 1866  Johnsonvetoed the 1866 Civil Rights Act. • Congress passed both bills over Johnson’s vetoes  1st in U. S. history!! Congress Breaks with the President

  21. Ratified in July, 1868. • Gave citizenship to African-American Men. • Provide a constitutional guarantee of the rights and security of freed people. • Southern states would be punished for denying the right to vote to black citizens. 14th Amendment

  22. Civil authorities in the territories were subject to military supervision. • Required new state constitutions, includingblack suffrage and ratification of the 13th and 14th Amendments. • In March, 1867, Congress passed an act that authorized the military to enroll eligible black voters and begin the process of constitution making. Radical Plan for Readmission

  23. Military Reconstruction Act • Restart Reconstruction in the 10 Southern states that refused to ratify the 14th Amendment. • Divide the 10 “unreconstructed states” into 5 military districts. Reconstruction Acts of 1867

  24. Command of the Army Act • The President must issue all Reconstruction orders through the commander of the military. • Tenure of Office Act • The President could not remove any officials [esp. Cabinet members] without the Senate’s consent, if the position originally required Senate approval. • Designed to protect radicalmembers of Lincoln’s government. • A question of the constitutionality of this law. Reconstruction Acts of 1867 Edwin Stanton

  25. Johnson removed Stanton in February, 1868. • Johnson replaced generals in the field who were more sympathetic to Radical Reconstruction. • The House impeached him on February 24 before even drawing up the charges by a vote of 126 – 47. President Johnson’s Impeachment

  26. 11 week trial. • Johnson acquitted 35 to 19 (one short of required 2/3s vote). Senate Trial

  27. 1868 Republican Ticket

  28. 1868 Democratic Ticket

  29. 1868 Presidential Election

  30. President Ulysses S. Grant1868-1876

  31. Grant presided over an era of unprecedented growth and corruption. • Whiskey Ring • The “Indian Ring” • The Tweed Ring “Boss Tweed”-Tammany Hall Grant Administration Scandals

  32. Who Stole the People’s Money?

  33. Banks across the land closed. • Eastern banks run out of money after making bad loans. A financial panic sweeps the country. • Stock market temporarily collapsed. • Panic causes an economic depression. • Railroads relied on loans, many fail and the farmers have no way to move their crops and are ruined. The Panic of 1873

  34. Black & White Political Participation

  35. Establishment of Historically Black Colleges in the South

  36. Black Senate & House Delegates

  37. Core voters were black veterans. • Blacks were politically unprepared. • Blacks could register and vote in states since 1867. • The 15thAmendment guaranteed voting rights to African American men. Blacks in Southern Politics

  38. Ratified in 1870. • The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. • The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. • Women’s rights groups were furious that they were not granted the vote. 15th Amendment

  39. Enforcement Acts of 1870 & 1871 [also known as the KKK Act]. The Failure of Federal Enforcement

  40. Crime for any individual to deny full &equal use of public conveyances andpublic places. • Prohibited discrimination in jury selection. • Shortcoming lacked a strong enforcement mechanism. • No new civil rights act was attemptedfor 90 years! The Civil Rights Act of 1875

  41. “Grantism” & corruption. • Panic of 1873 [6-yeardepression]. • Concern over westwardexpansion and Indian wars. • Key monetary issues: • should the government retire $432m worth of “greenbacks” issued during the Civil War. • should war bonds be paid back in specie orgreenbacks. Northern Support Wanes

  42. 1876 Presidential Tickets

  43. 1876 Presidential Election

  44. “Corrupt Bargain”? The Political Crisis of 1877

  45. Hayes Prevails

  46. Sammy Tilden—Boo-Hoo! Ruthy Hayes’s got my Presidency, and he won’t give it to me! Alas, the Woes of Childhood…

  47. Reconstruction ends with the 1876 election. A deal is made between Republicans and Democrats called the Compromise of 1877. Hayes becomes president and the Republicans would compromise with the Southern Democrats on several issues. Reconstruction collapsed. A Political Crisis: The “Compromise” of 1877