Do Now Please pull out last night’s homework and make sure your name is on it before turning it in. • Due Friday (now today) • Explain in detail the impact of Cromwell on the English Civil War. • Must be a minimum of 200 words. • Due Monday: (Today) • Short essay explaining the Glorious Revolution. Why is it called that? What is the Social and political impact of the Glorious Revolution? • Must be a minimum of 200 words.
Homework due last week • Read pages 614-617 • Identify the following terms from the reading: • Charles I • Petition of Right • English Civil War – understand why it was fought and what were the two sides. • Oliver Cromwell Bill of Rights • Charles II Cabinet • Habeas Corpus • Restoration of Habeas Corpus • William of Orange • Glorious Revolution • Constitutional Monarchy
Homework • On Tuesday the class will have a notebook quiz based around the following concepts: • How did James I became King. Where was he originally ruling? • What was the on going tension between Elizabeth, James and Charles when dealing with the Parliament. • Be able to explain the conflict with the parliament and the theory of an Absolute Monarchy • Why is the Petition of Rights an important document. • How did Charles’s dissolving of the parliament work for him? • What sparked the English Civil War and what were the sides? • What is the importance of Oliver Cromwell? What are his mistakes?
The King is toppled • In 1641, the parliament passed more laws to limit Charles and future king’s power. • Charles responded by trying to arrest members of the Parliament, but the members escaped. • Riots broke out near Charles palace and he left London. • Charles found loyal followers and raised an army to take on Parliament. • A Civil War soon developed. • It occurred between 1642 ~ 1649.
The Civil War • The two sides were the Royalist aka Cavaliers (these people supported King Charles) and the Puritan supporters of the Parliament known as the Roundheads. • The first few years neither side could gain ground, but by 1644, the Roundheads had Oliver Cromwell rising up. • In 1645, Cromwell redesigned the army and began making progress. In 1647, Cromwell’s army had captured King Charles. • In 1649, Cromwell and Parliament put the king on trial for treason. He was found guilty.
Executing a King • Cromwell ordered the execution to be carried out to show to the people that the King was nothing more than a man that held power. • Cromwell took over, but not as King or at least that was his claim. • He abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords (what we would call the Senate). • He established a Republic, but he sent dissolved parliament. His associate John Lambert wrote a constitution, the first of its kind. But Cromwell followed Charles’s mistakes. • He ripped up the constitution. He ruled as a military dictator (Martial Law).
Cromwell’s mistakes • In Cromwell’s attempt to rule unlike a King, he ruled very much like a king. His rule was law. • Cromwell became very unpopular. • Charles lost his throne because he refused to allow Parliament to take responsibility and because he felt he knew better he knew better. This too would be Cromwell’s failure. • Cromwell was quickly distracted by rebellions in Ireland. He spent a great deal of time and money putting them down (and causing another population of people to hate him).
Cromwell’s mistakes • The Puritans had a firm grip on English society, and they felt since Cromwell was a Puritan they could easily impose their beliefs on the English people. • The Puritans wanted to end activities they felt were sinful such as dancing, sporting events, theater. • Cromwell favored more toleration except anything Catholic. This created tension with the Puritans. • He ruled until his death in 1658. Following his death his government collapsed. • A new Parliament was elected. The English had enough of military rule. • The Parliament asked Charles I’s son, Charles II to rule England
Restoration of the Monarchy • Charles II entered London in 1660 to an excited crowd wishing for stability and ending of the chaos. • His return was known as the Restoration. • One major act passed by Parliament was the guarantee of freedom known as Habeas corpus. • Habeas corpus is a Latin term meaning “to have the body”. The purpose was to lay out why someone was being charged with a crime and then brought before a judge. The judge was to determine whether the prisoner should be sentenced or released. • This stopped the ruler from throwing someone in jail without a reason.