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Biology EOC Exam Review

Biology EOC Exam Review

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Biology EOC Exam Review

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  1. Biology EOC Exam Review Benchmark Specific Resources to prepare for the EOC

  2. Molecular and Cellular Biology Content represents 35% of the EOC

  3. Molecular and Cellular Biology – 35% of test • Cell theory • Cell structure, • DNA replication • Mitosis and Meiosis • Macromolecules • Properties of water • Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Molecular and Cellular Biology

  4. L.14.3Compare and contrast the general structures of plant and animal cells. Compare and contrast the general structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.L.14.1 Describe the scientific theory of cells (cell theory) and relate the history of its discovery to the process of science. • Children’s Museum Interactive • • Name the three parts of the Cell Theory • Think about: If you are looking at a cell under a microscope, how will you identify it as an animal, plant, or prokaryotic cell?

  5. All living organisms are composed of cells. They may be unicellular or multicellular. • The cell is the basic unit of life. • Cells arise from pre-existing cells. Cell Theory Refined Observed Tested

  6. Think about: If you are looking at a cell under a microscope, how will you identify it as an animal, plant, or prokaryotic cell? Tour of the cell:

  7. Cell Structure • Plant cell: Animal cell:

  8. Cell Structure

  9. L.14.2Relate structure to function for the components of plant and animal cells. Explain the role of cell membranes as a highly selective barrier (passive and active transport). • PhET Membrane Simulation • • Transport Across the Cell Membrane: • • Cell membrane: • Think about: Were you observing active or passive transport? How do you know?

  10. L.16.3Describe the basic process of DNA replication and how it relates to the transmission and conservation of the genetic information. • PBS DNA Replication Interactive • • DNA Replication: • Think about: How does DNA replication conserve genetic information?

  11. L.16.4 Explain how mutations in the DNA sequence may or may not result in phenotypic change. Explain how mutations in gametes may result in phenotypic changes in offspring. • Teacher’s Domain Mutation Interactive • Mutations: • Think about: If the mutations created phenotypic changes, what do we know about the type of cells the mutations were in?

  12. L.16.5 Explain the basic processes of transcription and translation, and how they result in the expression of genes.L.16.9 Explain how and why the genetic code is universal and is common to almost all organisms. • Learn Genetics Interactive • Transcription and translation: • Think about: In your own words explain what happens during transcription and translation.

  13. L.16.8 Explain the relationship between mutation, cell cycle, and uncontrolled cell growth potentially resulting in cancer. • CBS News Cancer’s Plan of Attack Animation • • Cancer: • • Think about: Why does uncontrolled cell growth potentially cause cancer?

  14. L.16.14 Describe the cell cycle, including the process of mitosis. Explain the role of mitosis in the formation of new cells and its importance in maintaining chromosome number during asexual reproduction. • McGraw-Hill Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation • • Phases of mitosis: • • • Chromatids, chromatins, chromosomes: • • Think about: How is the chromosome number maintained during mitosis?

  15. L.16.16Describe the process of meiosis, including independent assortment and crossing over. Explain how reduction division results in the formation of haploid gametes or spores. • McGraw-Hill Stages of Meiosis Animation • • Meiosis: • • • Phases of Meiosis: • • Think about: In your own words, explain the process of crossing over.

  16. L.16.17 Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis and relate to the processes of sexual and asexual reproduction and their consequences for genetic variation. • McGraw-Hill Mitosis vs Meiosis Animation • • Think about: During which process is genetic variation assured? Explain your answer

  17. L.18.1 Describe the basic molecular structures and primary functions of the four major categories of biological macromolecules. • Macromolecule Lab Interactive • • Molecules of Life: • • Carbohydrates: • Proteins: • Lipids: • Nucleic Acids: • Think about: What are the main functions of the four macromolecules?

  18. L.18.7Identify the reactants, products, and basic functions of photosynthesisL.18.10 Connect the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to energy transfers within a cell. • Interactive Concepts in BioChemistry • • Think about: Can photosynthesis take place at night? Explain

  19. L.18.8 Identify the reactants, products, and basic functions of aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration.L.18.10 Connect the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to energy transfers within a cell. • DK Online Cellular Respiration and Fermentation • (Note: Turn on subtitles) • Introduction to Cellular Respiration: • Glycolysis: • Kreb Cycle: • Electron Transport Chain: • ATP: • • Think about: Under what conditions does fermentation occur after glycolysis?

  20. L.18.9 Explain the interrelated nature of photosynthesis and cellular respiration • DK Online Opposite Processes Animation • • Photosynthesis: • Think about: In your own words, sum up why photosynthesis and respiration are considered to be opposite processes.

  21. L.18.11Explain the role of enzymes as catalysts that lower the activation energy of biochemical reactions. Identify factors, such as pH and temperature, and their effect on enzyme activity. • Science at A Distance (activation energy) • (cant do “Experiment”) • Kscience Enzyme Animation (factors) • (may need to minimize ppt to view) • Enzymes: • Think about: Under what conditions (temp and pH especially) was the enzyme most effective? Explain your answer

  22. L.18.12 Discuss the special properties of water that contribute to Earth's suitability as an environment for life: cohesive behavior, ability to moderate temperature, expansion upon freezing, and versatility as a solvent. • Water and Life: • Think about: Match the images above with the property of water that is related and then describe how each property helps sustain life on Earth.

  23. Classification, Heredity, and Evolution Content represents 25% of the EOC

  24. Classification, Classification, Heredity, and Evolution Evolution Origin of Life Classification Natural Selection Genetics

  25. L.15.1Explain how the scientific theory of evolution is supported by the fossil record, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, biogeography, molecular biology, and observed evolutionary change. • Evidence of Evolution: • Think about: Pick one image above and describe how it could be used as evidence for evolution. Comparative Embryology Comparative Anatomy Biogeography

  26. L.15.4 Describe how and why organisms are hierarchically classified based on evolutionary relationships.L.15.5 Explain the reasons for changes in how organisms are classified. • Quizlet Modern Evolutionary Classification • (suggest using “scatter”) • Classification of Life: • Three Domain of Life: • Phylogenetics: • Cladogram: • Think about: What does it mean to classify based on evolutionary relationships?

  27. L.15.6Discuss distinguishing characteristics of the domains and kingdoms of living organisms. • Active Learner Classification • • Think about: How are organisms classified into the three domains and then further into the six kingdoms?

  28. L.15.8Describe the scientific explanations of the origin of life on Earth. • PBS NOVA The History of Life • (launch video) • Origin of Life: • Think about: What are some pieces of evidence that support the current theories about the origin of life on Earth?

  29. L.15.10Identify basic trends in hominid evolution from early ancestors six million years ago to modern humans, including brain size, jaw size, language, and manufacture of tools. • Smithsonian Intro to Human Evolution • • Think about: What may have been some of the factors which drove hominid evolution?

  30. L.15.13Describe the conditions required for natural selection, including: overproduction of offspring, inherited variation, and the struggle to survive, which result in differential reproductive success. • DK Online Natural Selection • • Natural Selection: • Evolution and Natural Selection: • Think about: What are some factors that increase the survival of a species?

  31. L.15.14Discuss mechanisms of evolutionary change other than natural selection such as genetic drift and gene flow.L.15.15 Describe how mutation and genetic recombination increase genetic variation. • Glencoe Mechanisms of Evolution • • Genetic Drift: • Think about: How do genetic drift and gene flow increase genetic variety?

  32. L.16.1 Use Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment to analyze patterns of inheritanceL.16.2Discuss observed inheritance patterns caused by various modes of inheritance, including dominant, recessive, codominant, sex-linked, polygenic, and multiple alleles. • DNA Learning Center Animations • • Mendelian Genetics: • • Think about: What are the benefits and limitations to using Punnett Squares to predict offspring traits?

  33. Organisms, Populations, and Ecosystems Content represents 40% of the EOC

  34. What’s On The Test • Organisms, Populations and Ecosystems – 40% of test • Plant Structure • The Brain • Cardiovascular System • Immune system • Reproductive System • Population Size • Food webs and Energy Transfer • Biotechnology • Human Impact

  35. L.14.6Explain the significance of genetic factors, environmental factors, and pathogenic agents to health from the perspectives of both individual and public health. • Think about: How can the factors above effect human health? Environment Genetics Pathogens

  36. L.14.7Relate the structure of each of the major plant organs and tissues to physiological processes. • Bio Coach Plant Structure and Growth • • Plants: • Plant structure: • Plant Nutrient and Transport: • Plants Control: • Think about: Create a Concept Map to demonstrate your understanding of the functions of the parts of a plant (beyond roots, stem, and leaves)

  37. L.14.26Identify the major parts of the brain on diagrams or models. Brain Parts 1 - Cerebrum 2- Cerebellum 8 - Pons 9 - Medulla Oblongata 7 - Brain Stem 5 - Frontal lobe 3 - Parietal lobe 4 - Occipital lobe 6 - Temporal lobe • Think about: Match the terms with their correct location on the brain diagram

  38. L.14.36Describe the factors affecting blood flow through the cardiovascular system. • Heart Function and Disease • • Circulatory system: • Think about: What are some causes of reduced blood flow?

  39. L.14.52Explain the basic functions of the human immune system, including specific and nonspecific immune response, vaccines, and antibiotics. • EFIS Interactive Book • • Bacteria: • The Immune System: • Think about: What are the functions of the different cells in the immune system?

  40. L.16.10 Evaluate the impact of biotechnology on the individual, society and the environment, including medical and ethical issues. • Molecular Biology: • Think about: What are some positive and negative impacts of biotechnologies such as those shown above. Stem Cells Cloning Genetic Engineering

  41. L.16.13Describe the basic anatomy and physiology of the human reproductive system. Describe the process of human developmentfrom fertilization to birth and major changes that occur in each trimester of pregnancy. • Pearson Male Reproductive System • • Pearson Female Reproductive System • • Think about: What are some analogous structures in male and female reproductive systems? • Reproductive System: • NHS From Conception to Birth (UK) • • Think about: What are some major physiological developments during pregnancy? And when do they occur?

  42. L.17.2Explain the general distribution of life in aquatic systems as a function of chemistry, geography, light, depth, salinity, and temperature. • Think about: Contrast the areas of coastal and open ocean waters above

  43. L.17.4 Describe changes in ecosystems resulting from seasonal variations, climate change and succession.L.17.8Recognize the consequences of the losses of biodiversity due to catastrophic events, climate changes, human activity, and the introduction of invasive, non-native species. • Welcome to the Dzangha-Sangha • • Ecological Succession: • Population: • Ecosystem: • Think about: What changes would effect the biodiversity shown in the various ecosystems? Describe the effects

  44. L.17.9Use a food web to identify and distinguish producers, consumers, and decomposers. Explain the pathway of energy transfer through trophic levels and the reduction of available energy at successive trophic levels. • Thomson Learning Trophic Levels • • Think about: Why is less energy available at successive trophic levels?

  45. L.17.11Discuss the characteristics of populations, such as number of individuals, age structure, density, and pattern of distributionL.17.5 Analyze how population size is determined by births, deaths, immigration, emigration, and limiting factors (biotic and abiotic) that determine carrying capacity • PhET Natural Selection Simulation • • Carrying Capacity r and K selection: • Biotic and Abiotic factors: • Think about: What factor(s) caused the greatest change in bunny population? Explain why this might be true

  46. L.17.13Discuss the need for adequate monitoring of environmental parameters when making policy decisions.L.17.20 Predict the impact of individuals on environmental systems and examine how human lifestyles affect sustainability. • Think about: What impact might the construction of the proposed neighborhood have on the surrounding environment? How can those impacts be monitored?

  47. E.7.1Analyze the movement of matter and energy through the different biogeochemical cycles, including water and carbon. • DK Online Cycles in Nature • (Focus on Water and Carbon Cycle) • Biogeochemical Cycle: • Think about: What happens to matter and energy throughout each cycle?

  48. An osmosis investigation was conducted using 20 chicken eggs to represent cells with semipermeable membranes. The eggs were first soaked in vinegar to dissolve the shell. The eggs were then transferred to corn syrup for 24 hours and then to distilled water for 24 hours. The mass of each egg was measured before and after each soaking to determine how much water diffused into or out of the eggs. The table below shows the average mass of the eggs at each step of the investigation. Based on this experiment, which of the following should be inferred about cells with semipermeable membranes? A. Substances other than water may also cross the cell membrane. B. Substances other than water may block pores in the cell membrane. C. Water enters the cell when placed in environments of high water concentration. D. Water leaves the cell when placed in environments with a low concentration of solutes

  49. Answer: C

  50. The cell theory was first proposed in 1838. Evidence obtained through additional scientific investigations resulted in the current cell theory. Which statement describes a component of the original cell theory that was removed because of the new scientific knowledge? A. All living things are made of cells. B. All cells come from other preexisting cells. C. Cells form through spontaneous generation. D. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of life.