Article determination The Indefinite article A/AN The definite article THE The Zero Article
The Indefinite articleA/AN • A is used before a noun beginning with a consonant sound Ex.: a uniform, a yoghurt • An is used before a noun beginning with a vowel sound Ex.: an umbrella, an owl
The Indefinite articleA/AN Functions • Classifying • Nominating • First – mention • Numerical • Generic
The Indefinite articleA/AN The Indefinite article in the Classifying function is used to show that the speaker is characterizing a person, object or event only as a specimen of a certain class of things.
The Indefinite articleA/AN The classifying indefinite article is mostly found with predicative, appositive nouns and adverbial phrases: Ex.: I’m a teacher. – a predicative Ex.: He owes his curious name to his father, a well-read man. – an apposition Ex.: She looked like a boy. – an adverbial phrase
The Indefinite articleA/AN The Indefinite article in the Nominating function is usedwhenthe speaker wants to name an object or to state what kind of object is meant. Ex.: He struck a match and lit a cigarette. - objects
The Indefinite articleA/AN The indefinite article is used to name an object which is usually new to the hearer. This is the first-mention function of the indefinite article. It serves to introduce some new information. Ex.: One morning a man was sitting on the bench near the house.
The Indefinite articleA/AN The indefinite article in the numerical function is generally found: • With nouns denoting time, measure and weight Ex.: for a minute or two b. With the numerals hundred, thousand, million, dozen and score Ex.: I’ve told you a hundred times
The Indefinite articleA/AN The indefinite article in the numerical function is generally found: c.After the negative not Ex.: not a word, not a trace d. In some set phrases Ex.: at a time, at a gulp, at a draught e. Between two noun groups in expressions denoting prices, salaries, speed etc. Ex.: 90 pounds a week, 12 hours a day
The Indefinite articleA/AN The Indefinite article in the Generic function expresses a generalization: what is said about one specimen of a class can be applied to all the specimens of the class. The meaning here is close to every/any. Ex.: A tiger is a wild animal.
The Definite articleThe The graphic form is identical the, whichispronounced differently: • Before a vowel sound [ðı] Ex.: the actor • Before a consonant sound [ðƏ] Ex.: the cat
The Definite articleThe Functions • Specific • Unique • Generic
The Definite articleThe The definite article in the specific function shows that the speaker is referring to a particular example. Ex.: There is someone at the door. The house was a bare three minutes from the station.
The Definite articleThe The definite article in the specific function: • With the adjectives in the superlative degree Ex.: She was the most active of us.
The Definite articleThe But • Mostin combinationwith an adjective can have the same meaningas very, exceedinglyand is used withthe indefinite article Ex.: A most clever man
The Definite articleThe The definite article in the specific function: • With the ordinal numerals Ex.: You should say the first romance of your life. • BUT in the meaning one more or another Ex.: Two people would have to hold the chair and a third would help him up on it.
The Definite articleThe With the cardinal numerals • Usually no article Ex.: There were four of us. • The definite article is determined by the context Ex.: Emily looked at Vera. The two women rose.
The Definite articleThe • Note the difference the second chapter/ chapter two
The Definite articleThe The definite article in the specific function: • With the limiting adjectives and the identifying pronoun same Ex.: the main reason, the only occasion, the same student, the right way, the very person ant etc.
The Definite articleThe • Note An only child is to be regarded as a set phrase Ex.: I’m an only child in the family.
The Definite articleThe • Prepositional phrases as limiting attributes Ex.: I despise you from the bottom of my heart. • Prepositional phrases without limiting meaning are used with the indefinite article usually denote: material (a ring of gold); content (a cup of tea); quality and measure (a distance of two miles); composition (a group of boys; a man of forty)
The Definite articleThe The definite article in the unique function shows the uniqueness of an object or event. The group of nouns with unique reference is rather limited: the sun, the moon, the stars, the sky, the earth, the world, the Universe, the planets, the equator, the north pole, the weather, the devil, the pope and etc.
The Definite articleThe The definite article in the generic function shows the reference to a whole class of referents; it is used to denote a genus taken as a whole, or a thing taken as a type. Ex.: The cuckoo is a lazy bird. The old could not help the young.
The Zero Article • With the nouns in plural Ex.: Horses are domestic animals. • Before the uncountable nouns Ex.: I like milk. • Before Proper names Ex.: Mary is my friend. Washington is the capital of the USA.
The Zero Article • With the addressee Ex.: Good morning, child! • Before the nouns denoting: season, day time and meals Ex.: Summer is my favourite season. • Before ranks and titles Ex.: Mr. West, Professor Smith
The Zero Article • With some word-combinations Ex.: at first, at home, at peace, at war, at table, by chance, by heart, by name, by mistake, by means of, in time, to be in bed, to go by bus, to go to school, to go to town, to tell lies, day by day
The Use of Articles with Abstract Nouns • Abstract non-count nouns with generic reference are used without any article. Ex.: Knowledge is power. It gives me great pleasure. • Abstract non-count nouns can be used with the indefinite article when they are modified by descriptive attributes Ex.: In a wild relief he put his hands to his face.
The Use of Articles with Abstract Nouns • Abstract nouns with specific reference are used with the definite article. Ex.: I feel giddy. I’ll just sit here quietly till the giddiness wears off. • Some Abstract nouns are never used with the indefinite article: Weather, money, news, work, luck, fun and etc.
The Use of Articles with Abstract Nouns • The use of articles within some syntactic structures Ex.: It’s a shame; It’s a pleasure; What a pity!; What a relief!
Articles with Names of Seasons and Parts of the Day • Names of seasons and parts of the day take no article when used predicatively: Ex.: It was summer. • No article is used when such nouns are modified by: early, late, broad, high Ex.: It was late evening.
Articles with Names of Seasons and Parts of the Day • Used with the indefinite article if they are modified by a descriptive attribute Ex.: It was a foggy evening. • In the specific use the definite article is used Ex.: I shall not forget the evening I spent with them.
Articles with Names of Seasons and Parts of the Day • Optional points (specific/generic) Ex.: (The) winter came early that year. • In number of some set phrases: In the morning, in the evening, at night, at dawn, after sunset, from morning to night, through the autumn, late at night, night after night, all through the day and etc.
Articles with Names of Meals • Names of meals usually take no articles Ex.: Dinner is ready. • With the descriptive attribute the indefinite article is used Ex.: He ordered a modest lunch. • With the limiting attribute the definite article is used Ex.: The dinner she prepared was wonderful.
Articles with Names of Meals • Names of meals may denote party, tea party and etc. the usage of article depends on the situation Ex.: Why not give a dinner? She began to dress for the dinner to which she had been invited.
Articles with the nouns: School, Prison, Church, Hospital • No article is used when they denote the purpose they are used for Ex.: I go to school. (to study) • The definite article is used when they denote the building Ex.: They went to the church to repair the roof.
Names of Parts of the Body • The definite article is used in prepositional phrases associated with the object, in passive constructions, with the subject Ex.: The woman took the boy by the hand. The dog bit her on the leg. • The definite article is used when a touch, blow or pain is referred to Ex.: She had a pain in the side.
The Names with the Specific Periods • The definite article is used with the names of decades, centuries, historic periods Ex.: the bronze age, the nineteenth century • The definite article is used with past, present, future Ex.:I think about the present and remember about the past.
The Names with the Specific Periods • No article is used with present and future after at and in Ex.: Try to remember it in future. Note: In American English in the future is more common than in future
Articles with Proper Nouns Personal Names • Normally no article is used Ex.: Tom grinned. • The definite article is used: • with a family name in the plural Ex.: The Forsytes were resentful. • With the limiting attribute Ex.: This wasn’t the Simon he had known so long.
Articles with Proper Nouns Personal Names • with a descriptive attribute indicating a permanent quality Ex.: At that moment they were interrupted by the gentle Mrs Shobbe. • In the meaning the very one Ex.: Do you mean the Shakespeare?
Articles with Proper Nouns Personal Names • The indefinite article is used • To indicate one member or a certain person Ex.: His mother was a Devereux.
Articles with Proper Nouns Personal Names • Indicating concrete object or a person having specific characteristics Ex.: I bought a Volvo. I’m not a Michael Angelo.
Geographical Names • No article: Continents, countries, states, cities, towns Ex.: (North) America (old) England • The definite article with some provinces, countries Ex.: the Argentine, The Netherlands, The USA, the Crimea, the Ruhr, the Hague
Geographical Names • The definite article with the of-phrase Ex.: the England of today • The indefinite article with a descriptive attribute Ex.: a very cheerful England • The definite article is used with the names of rivers, oceans, seas and lakes Ex.: The Baikal BUT Lake Baikal
Geographical Names • The definite article with the names of deserts Ex.: The Sahara • The definite article with the chains of mountains and groups of islands Ex.: The Urals, The West Indies • No article with one mountain and one island Ex.: Everest, Sicily
Geographical Names • The definite article with the of-phrase plus the Proper name Ex.: The Cape of Good Hope The University of London BUT London University
Calendar Items • Names of months and days of the week generally take no article Ex.: It was Monday. • Meaning one of many (indefinite article) Ex.: We met on a Friday. • With a descriptive attribute (indefinite article) Ex.: A cold May is a usual thing. • With a limiting attribute (definite article) Ex.: He came on the Friday when Tom was born.
Articles with Miscellaneous Proper Names • No article with the names of parks, streets Ex.: Central Park, Fleet Park Exception: The Strand, The High Street, Whitehall, Downing Street But: The Gorky Park, the Red Square
Articles with Miscellaneous Proper Names • The definite article with the names of museums, theatres, galleries, concert halls, clubs, hotels Ex.: the Rotary club, the Opera House, the Savoy, the Bolshoi theatre, the Tate • No article with the names of airports and railway stations Ex.: London airport, Victoria station
Articles with Miscellaneous Proper Names • The definite article with the names of ships and boats Ex.: the Titanic, the Sedov • The definite article with the names of newspapers and magazines Ex.: the Times, the Guardian, the Language But Punch, Newsweek